The biggest and most negative effect on coral reefs is rising water temperatures
that are due to climate change. The most important relationship coral has is with
algae. Warmer water temperatures causes this relationship to fall apart, and the
lack of algae leads the coral to lose its color and give off the bleached effect.
Another problem is the influx in the amounts of Co2 present in the water. More
carbon dioxide leads to the coral skeletons being dissolved, which leads to a lack
of space present for the coral to grow on. The last major threat to coral reefs is
humans. Little things such as coral reef tours, to big things like harmful methods
of fishing tear apart the coral reefs that have developed over many of years.

Eutrophication is nutrient enrichment which as a result, drives primary
productivity into waterways. These nutrients fuel the algae population and lead to
the water being thick and have very high turbidity as a result. The most negative
effect from this is that the algae blocks sunlight to reach the water which kills
plants and animals that were living in that ecosystem. This lack of oxygen
creates dead zones where plant and fish numbers drop drastically.

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One endangered animal is the Hawaiian Monk Seal.The Hawaiian Monk seal is
indigenous to Hawaiian waters and is one of the rarest seals on the planet. The
total population is estimated to be around 1,400 seals, and has been on a steady
decline since the 1950’s. The biggest threats to the population include food
limitation, habitat loss, entanglement, shark predation, and human impacts. While
there are some natural reasons such as food limitation, humans are a big part of
these numbers drops as overfishing and habitat loss because of construction are
the biggest factors. The biggest things being done to bring back the population
are enhancing survival of female seals, and reduce human-seal interactions that
happen on the islands.

While there are many different ways to catch fish the main ways used are long
lining, industrial, purse-seine fishing, and drift net fishing. Long lining is putting
out lines hung with bait. Depending on the scale of long lining, this is a
sustainable way to catch fish. Industrial uses sonar, huge nets, and spotter
planes to vacuum the ocean. This method is very harmful to the ocean and
greatly reduces biodiversity. Purse-Seine fishing catches surface dwelling

species with a large net to catch multiple at a time. This method often catches
fish that aren’t desirable to the fisherman which leads to many pointless deaths,
and harm to the ocean. Drift Net fishing uses huge nets to scrape the ocean and
find as many creatures as possible. This method is very unsustainable often
catching turtles and dolphins that die in the nets. The amount of fish wasted and
killed from this method greatly outweighs the amount put to use.

The biggest way to save the ocean is to cut our carbon footprint. Being mindful of
the amenities we use and the foods we eat can cut down on our Co2 emissions
and greatly help sea life. Another way is to watch what foods we decide to eat,
and make sure the trash is sustainable and the places we get them from are also
sustainable. Plastics destroy marine habitats and put millions of ocean creatures
at risk such as the birds eating the bottle caps that we talked about. Something
simple like using a reusable water bottle can help to stop the overflow of plastic.
Another way to help the ocean is to find good organizations that have the same
beliefs as you and support them. Whether that is a donation to help them get
their work done, or you volunteering to be a part of the cause, every bit helps
tons.

In the 1960’s Lake Erie, mostly in part to the factory pollutants and waste being
dumped into it, had become extremely polluted. Because of the increased
nitrogen and phosphorus levels, eutrophication took place. This increase in
turbidity did not allow photosynthesis to take place, and the lack of oxygen led to
all the fish in the lake turning up dead onto the shores. In 1969, as a result of
pollutions from years of waste from local industries, the Cuyahoga River caught
on fire. The fire began an important figure in the Cleveland community and an
eye opening experience which led to 100 million dollar bond initiative to clean up
the river.

Wetlands are so crucial to preserve because of their ability to recharge
groundwater and trap and protect against flood waters, and provide a variety of
very important contributions to the ecosystem around them. Wetlands not only
remove pollution, but they also give key nutrients to animals living inside of them.
On the other side of things they can be critical parts of local economies such as
fishing and agriculture.

The Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch is a ginormous plane of plastic and
other trash that is swirling in the North Pacific. The currents that run past
California and the west coast of the US all lead to a gyre which is met by cooler

water in the Northern Pacific. This tracks all of the trash and brings it all to one
point where it converges and settles. This point is the Great Pacific Garbage
Patch. The journey may be long for the trash to reach its end point, but rivers,
sewers, and just plastic from the coastline all get brought to the same heap of
waste in the end.

9. Invasive species have the ability to spread and adapt very rapidly which means
they can take over almost any environment. These earlier made aquatic
ecosystems have evolved and formed over millions of years in their own way and
are now reliant on their relationships. When an invasive species makes its way
into that ecosystem it completely throws off the previously had balance which can
completely sway the numbers of certain organisms populations. Those numbers
being changed means the fish they feed on, or feed on them also change, which
becomes a chain reaction tearing down the whole ecosystem. A marine example
is the zebra mussel. This was brought over by cargo ships. These creatures
numbers multiplied rapidly and killed off native mussels while also interfering with
human structures. An invasive species from the freshwater point of view is Asian
Clams.

10.Ways that an aquifer can get polluted are, sewage disposal systems, mine
wastes, liquid wastes, and animal feedlot wastes. Human actions such as
gasoline, oil, and others contaminate the water. To clean groundwater, the soil
and rocks around it and the water must be cleaned. This process takes years
and is very labor intensive. The harsh work also leads to the whole process being
very expensive.