The world was evolving with new philosophy, science, mathematics, religion, and technology. There had been many accomplished people that have helped mankind grow such as Plato, Aristotle, Euclid, Pythagoras, and Eratosthenes. Al-Biruni came along in 973 C.
E. and made his mark on revolutionizing the world. Although Al-Biruni grew up to be one of the most accomplished scientist and scholar of the time and he made a great impact on the world of science. Therefore, Al-Biruni is one of the most important person in the history of mankind. Al Biruni was born in Kath, Khwarazm in September, 973 C.
E. Since his childhood he never knew who his parents were. In his youth, Al Biruni was taught by Abu Nasr Mansur a prominent astronomer and mathematician (O’Connor).
Later in his life, Biruni served in the court of Sultan Mahmud. Under Sultan Mahmud, he traveled to India and spent many years learning sanskrit, geography, astronomy, and mathematics from Indian scholars. He spent the rest of his life under Sultan Mawdud (Aber).
At the age of 75, Al Biruni died in 1048 in Ghazna, Afghanistan due to old age.During his life, Al Biruni achieved great heights. He had many accomplishments in the fields of geography, astronomy, geometry, trigonometry, algebra, petrology, physics, and chemistry.
In addition, he was a phenomenal linguist and he wrote about 182 books. One of his major accomplishment was his knowledge of space. He knew Earth was a sphere and it revolved around its axis. He also calculated the radius and circumference of the Moon, the Sun, and the planet’s Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn (Virk). In addition to his astronomical discoveries, he also became very talented in petrology, the study of rocks and minerals.
Al Biruni described the characteristics of over 100 minerals. He described their color, hardness, varieties, and he accurately designed a method to find the density for minerals by weighing water displacement (Aber). Al Biruni was extremely talented in mathematical sciences and geography.
He made map projections of the poles which later came to be known as the Azimuthal Equidistant Projection. Al-Biruni discovered ways to measure latitude and longitude. He even disovered methods of determining the exact position of things. (Zahoor). Some of Al Biruni’s most read texts include Kitab-al-Hind, describes his knowledge gathered on Indian culture where he often visited as part of Sultan Mahmud’s court; Al-Qanun Al-Masudi, this book displayed his knowledge on Astronomy and Mathematics; Al-Athar Al-Baqiya, this book was about Ancient History and Geography; and Kitab al-Jawahir, this book hd accounts for his discoveries about Precious Stones (Who Was Al-Biruni?). His numerous works were influenced by many scientists and mathematicians in the Middle East, India, and the Mediterranean.
He was most influenced by Aristotle, Ptolemy, Aryabhata, Muhammad, Brahmagupta, Rhazes, al-Sijzi, Abu Nasr Mansur, and Avicenna. Many Indian scholars influenced his astronomical works. (Shah). Al Biruni challenged Aristotle’s observation of planets revolving in circular orbits. Al Biruni considered the fact that planets probably moved in elliptical orbits instead.Al Biruni had many achievements but they did not prevail after his death. Most of his books are lost and are only referenced.
The few books that have survived were extremely difficult to interpret. Only centuries later did some of his research get translated and used. Al Biruni had introduced This shows how Al Biruni’s work was ahead of other works in his time.
Not only was he finding the faults of his predecessors, he was creating better techniques to replace them.Another major contribution from Al Biruni was his creation of the observation tubes. He used these tubes to accurately observe a part of the sky by successfully illuminating light interference.
These observation tubes later influenced the invention of the telescope. His numerous astronomical calculations were later discovered and were proved to be extremely accurate. To conclude, Al Biruni was one of the most gifted and talented scholar of the post classical period. The legacy of his works have inspired and influenced later scholars and their research. His most notable contributions have been calculating planetary positions, distances between cities, the calculation of Earth’s circumference, and the classification of minerals.
At the same time he was able to challenge and correct previous techniques and ideas in astronomy and mathematics. He has largely contributed to the fields of astronomy and geology but his contributions have reached much broader subjects such as petrology, chemistry, and physics. He has shared his innumerable ideas by writing numerous books which educate scholars till this day.