The initial key objectives of this
quantitative study are used to answer the research questions and help to
identify and understand the significant factors regarding food. As prior
studies, there is no excusive studies has been done with the combination of
five identifies motives, consumer involvement as mediator in association to
customer’s intention and decision to purchase collectively; and reveal the
theoretical model in this study that has been adequately justified by analysis
and  results. The results of this study
are concluded according to the objectives of the research, after the analysis
it conclude that the actual objective have been positive significantly fulfill
as perceived objective which is creating in first chapter based on theoretical
framework.

5.2.1.1 OBJ 1: Effect of five identified
food related consumption motives to create purchase intention of food items

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The key objective of this quantitative
survey based study is help to discover and understand the significantly
significant factors that influence customers purchase intention that completely
fulfill the first object of the study. The
consumer attitude toward purchase of food products is not more or satisfactory
affected by health consciousness in the area of this
research survey. Only 19 percent change comes due to the customer’s
consciousness regarding health issues into the purchasing behavior. As outcomes
in (Suh, Eves, & Lumbers, 2012) customers permit to
consume the every type of food items without worries. And in this study; it
determined that the customers have not strong or sufficient perception during
purchase of food regarding their health.

The conclusion is also reported that the
situational based issues such as time pressure and peer influence were
discovered to be more essential for the respondents as compared to other
motives of consumption motives of this study; while making purchase intention
of food items. Therefore, more valuable and vital factors that are highly
significant impact on the purchase intention; the situational factors (i.e. time pressure and peer influence) which
observed beta coefficient value .582; As stated by (Gupta, 2016)
that the food choice decisions based on social group were more preferable for
customer as compared to the individual decisions regarding food’ specially in
the short time or under the pressure of time, customers prefer to take opinion
or suggestion (Jabs & Devine, 2006). But the other more
essential factor found to be as personal trails of the customers that has
positive and significant role while making the intention or decision of the
food purchase. The personal personality traits of consumers (i.e. novelty seeking, need for interaction and self
efficiency) with observed beta coefficient value .528 in the analysis. The
individual personality traits based on their social, cultural and virtual value
and beliefs with respect to different families (Middlebrook, 2016). Furthermore, the variations exist by
the situational factors and personal consumer traits in the purchase intention
with 34 percent and 28 percent respectively; that is considered satisfactory change
for come into good fit model of this study. It was also reported by the results
of the study that by including these two factors in the consumption motives;
has develop the improvement in the predictive power of suggested theoretical
framework.

The results of the analysis indicated
that the ecological motives and food safety concern has been positive
and significant impact on customer’s intention of purchasing food items with
observed beta values were 0.495 and 0.483 respectively. That elaborates, both
perform important role in purchasing behavior of customers but not highly
strong impact on purchase intention because the survey conducted in that
population where the individual have not been concerned about environmental
protection of food and food safety issue, such as the expiry date, artificial
health additives and chemicals mix to made attractive products. There is need
to develop the awareness based on ecological knowledge and food safety; and
require to enhance involvement during purchase food.  

5.2.1.2 OBJ 2: Effect of consumption
motives such as health consciousness, food safety concerns, personal consumer
traits, situational factors and ecological motives with consumer involvement.

            After
the analysis performed, it concluded about the second objective of this study;
that the each consumption motive of food choices have been positively
significant impact on consumer involvement (such as concern about availability,
price and quality), that fulfill the second key objective is this study.

            The
situational factors including time
pressure and peer influence collectively, as the antecedent of purchase
intention have strongly positive and significant direct impact on consumer
involvement, which observed beta value is 0.747; this result elaborates that
the situation factors have been important to create or to increase the customer
involvement. The results mentioned that the 56 percent change exist in consumer
involvement due to the situational factors that means more than half the
situational factor effected on involvement which is highly acceptable range.
Therefore, manufacturer need to pay more attention and focus on situational
factors that is customers prefers, in developing new strategies regarding food
products.

            As
comparing the results of remaining five consumption motive’s effect on consumer
involvement, observed that the consciousness
about health it seems to be not highly important factor for the food
customer/respondents with beta significant value is 0.474 and only 22 percent
variation have been occurred in consumer involvement, that is considered within
the rang to goodness of fit model. But to improve the association of health
consciousness and involvement, need to understand the customer’s basic need and
avoid the perceived risks. Consciousness of health could be explained to the
range to which the health of individual is merging into their daily intake or
routine food consumption (Basu & Dutta, 2008) (Dutta-Bergman, 2004). After the above
discussions about the findings it concluded that the other remaining
determinants of the purchase intention such as personal consumer traits, ecological
motives and food safety concern
have been measured significantly positive impact on the involvement of
customers in purchasing food; with the beta coefficient values, 0.665, 0.609
and 0.551 respectively. Higher the R square value shows that more variation
contained in involvement, as well as the lower the R square value shows less
change in consumer involvement. These consumption factors play important role
to enhance involvement toward selecting food items. This study concluded that
identified five consumption motives of this study have been positively
significant impact on consumer involvement as mentioned in discussion section
of this chapter.

5.2.1.3 OBJ 3: The consumer involvement
impact regarding food choices; on purchase intention.

             It is concluded that after the results of analysis performed in
chapter four, the effect of consumer involvement during purchase intention of
food items have not been vital and important role for the respondents in the
arena of research survey. Both purchase intention and involvement of customers
regarding food were have been positive and significantly significant
correlated; therefore, observed value of R to be 0.595a but there was only 36 percent change is occurred in purchase
intention due to the involvement of customers in buying and identifying healthy
food products; that is near enough to sufficient requirement. Customers have to
paying attention and need to more aware regarding choices of food to consume.
As stated by (Bruwer, 2010) that is only
possible when the manufacturers understand to fulfill the customer’s actual
preferences and needs to improve and develop the new products of food; which
directly maximize the purchasing level of food items and maintain the customer
retention.

5.2.1.4 OBJ 4: Mediating role of consumer
involvement between increasing the purchase intention and food consumption
choices in food related industry.

            As according to results of analysis of this study, it has revealed
that the data collected by the respondents was normal, the validity and reliability
have been checked on the bases of specific range of reliability; all variables’
value of reliability is more than 0.7; now the data is reliable to proceed
further and evaluate the coefficient correlation between each factors of
dependent independent and mediating variables that have been positive
significant related and at the last the mediation effect partial between each
factor of consumption motives and purchase intention.

As results mentioned in chapter 4; the
analysis have been concluded that the consumer involvement significantly
partial mediate between each consumption motive and purchase intention, that is
confirmed by the reduction of the direct relationships between independent
factors (i.e. personal consumer traits, ecological motives, situational
factors, health consciousness and food safety concern) and dependent factor,
i.e. purchase intention. In additionally, the consumer involvement performed as
mediation role to increase the relationship between purchase intention and
consumption motives regarding food choices. The consumer involvement in
purchase food item enhance the two way communication between customer and food
provider, hence the food provider could easily receive the feedback and
customer could easily give views or remarks about food products
(Kelley, Donnelly & Skinner, 1990; Lovelock & Young, 1979; Mills &
Moberg, 1982).

 

5.2.2
CONTRIBUTION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH

5.2.2.1
Theoretical

              It has been concluded that
according to the previously in literature, there is not huge researches on
specific five identified consumption motives (such as, food safety, situational
factors, ecological motives, personal consumer traits and health consciousness)
through consumer involvement to enhance purchase decision and intention of food,
might be it can provide the contribution that based enough knowledge about the
consumptions motive through consumer involvement toward purchase intention of
food. Therefore, there is vacuum existing that filled with the help of this
research study.

The results of this study reveals the
theoretical framework to understand the relationship between five consumption
motive regarding food choices and customer intention to purchase in the
existence of mediation factor as involvement of customers in buying food. Hopefully
this study provides the supportive information and knowledge about the
identified consumption factors influencing the purchasing intention of customer
in the inclusion of involvement. Furthermore, the results of this study could
be contributed in future studies and researches such as provide the guidance or
references for further researches that relate with attributes of this study.

5.2.2.2
Practical

            The
analysis based on the theoretical model of this study that reveal findings and
significantly positive impacts of factors, this findings of study would play
vital role for the continued improvement and establishment of the food industry
that understand the concerns, preferences and values of the customers; based on
customer consumption motives in which as mentioned that the situational factors
such as time pressure and peer influence has been highly most important factor
regarding food purchase through involvement in purchasing. The outcomes of the
research analysis provide the practical implications for enhancing the purchase
of food through involvement of customers. Government and other food industries
need to develop strategies to engage the customers to promote the motives of
food consumption choices because these consumption motives have positive
significant role in developing intention to purchase food items.

The findings of this research are
ultimately help to know the alternative and different food choices for the
customers to consume good quality and healthy food items from the market. Furthermore,
the all five consumption motive have been exerting the significantly positive
impact on the willingness and intention of customers to purchase food products
that could be contributed in future to the development food industry strategies
and also could use to find the motives of food choices on which the purchase
intention is based and helpful to maximize the loyalty of customers, purchasing
level of products and customer retention because customers choices and
preferences rapidly diverting from one product to other. The food manufacturer
easily avail the assess how to provide healthy quality food products to the
customers and how to safeguard the customers from the low quality and harmful
food for health.

This study explores the factors that can
provide to the manufacturer and food business holder that help to understand
the customer’s food choices to increase the sales and productivity of the small
size businesses. The findings of this study could be provided to the Government
food authorities, farm manufacturer, and department of agriculture and food
business persons to understand the effects of identified consumption motive
regarding food choices through consumer involvement on purchase intention.
Therefore, this study provides the guideline for the manufacture of the food
products and for food business, including government.

 

RECOMMENDATION

1.     
The
result of analysis reveals that there is need to be improving the methods to
solve the food safety related issues and protect the environmental surroundings
such as the process of food manufacturing, store safely and animal welfare. 

2.     
The
food manufactures should have to interact directly with customers to increase
the customer involvement with product during purchasing behavior; the customer
remarks or feedback easily collected for improvement.

3.     
By
focusing on the results of this investigation, understand the nature of the
customer toward food purchasing, according to this it help to develop
strategies to maximize the productivity and customer loyalty level with product
would enhance.

4.     
As
according to observed outcomes, the consumer involvement play vital role in
purchase intention regarding food consumption motive, therefore, it required to
establish or develop CPM (customer participation management) in food businesses
and food manufacture companies. It could only be possible after the development
of CRM (customer relationship management).

5.     
Out
of these identified five factors PFA (Punjab food authority) can easily
determine the factor that greatly influence on purchase intention to increase
customer involvement for the satisfaction of consumer concern about need or
wants and his/her health care.

6.     
Health
consciousness is positive significant impact but have not been highly
significant as according to perceived idea, it happened in this survey because
of less awareness in respondents regarding health and the respondents have no
enough knowledge to select food, hence there is need to develop strategies that
help to enhance the food related awareness and knowledge that is enough
necessary for health.

7.     
Food
manufacturers should control the time shortage related issues, by provide the
availability of healthy or organic food products as compared to convenient food
(fast food) in the pressure of short time.

8.     
 Food manufacture business or food outlets need
to label the each attributes of the products clearly and easy to understand for
every type of customers, because lack of understanding caused barrier to paying
attention on food safety, ecological motives and consciousness about health.

9.     
The
relationship between the identified factors of this study could be measured in
depth through qualitative research such as interviews.

10.  This study is not focused to measure the
dimensions of ecological motive, situational factors and personal consumer
traits as mentioned in theoretical model. In future it could be measured the
individual dimensions of the each factors; such as ecological
motives-environmental protection and ethical concern/animal welfare;
situational factors-time pressure and peer influence; personal consumer
traits-need for interaction, novelty seeking, self efficiency, could be
conducted as a individual variable to scrutinize the impact on purchase
intention through involvement of customer.

11.  For future research, it could be adapted
other sampling techniques and in different targeted area with different
sampling size.