The initial key objectives of thisquantitative study are used to answer the research questions and help toidentify and understand the significant factors regarding food. As priorstudies, there is no excusive studies has been done with the combination offive identifies motives, consumer involvement as mediator in association tocustomer’s intention and decision to purchase collectively; and reveal thetheoretical model in this study that has been adequately justified by analysisand results. The results of this studyare concluded according to the objectives of the research, after the analysisit conclude that the actual objective have been positive significantly fulfillas perceived objective which is creating in first chapter based on theoreticalframework.5.
2.1.1 OBJ 1: Effect of five identifiedfood related consumption motives to create purchase intention of food itemsThe key objective of this quantitativesurvey based study is help to discover and understand the significantlysignificant factors that influence customers purchase intention that completelyfulfill the first object of the study. Theconsumer attitude toward purchase of food products is not more or satisfactoryaffected by health consciousness in the area of thisresearch survey. Only 19 percent change comes due to the customer’sconsciousness regarding health issues into the purchasing behavior. As outcomesin (Suh, Eves, & Lumbers, 2012) customers permit toconsume the every type of food items without worries. And in this study; itdetermined that the customers have not strong or sufficient perception duringpurchase of food regarding their health.
The conclusion is also reported that thesituational based issues such as time pressure and peer influence werediscovered to be more essential for the respondents as compared to othermotives of consumption motives of this study; while making purchase intentionof food items. Therefore, more valuable and vital factors that are highlysignificant impact on the purchase intention; the situational factors (i.e. time pressure and peer influence) whichobserved beta coefficient value .582; As stated by (Gupta, 2016)that the food choice decisions based on social group were more preferable forcustomer as compared to the individual decisions regarding food’ specially inthe short time or under the pressure of time, customers prefer to take opinionor suggestion (Jabs & Devine, 2006). But the other moreessential factor found to be as personal trails of the customers that haspositive and significant role while making the intention or decision of thefood purchase. The personal personality traits of consumers (i.e.
novelty seeking, need for interaction and selfefficiency) with observed beta coefficient value .528 in the analysis. Theindividual personality traits based on their social, cultural and virtual valueand beliefs with respect to different families (Middlebrook, 2016). Furthermore, the variations exist bythe situational factors and personal consumer traits in the purchase intentionwith 34 percent and 28 percent respectively; that is considered satisfactory changefor come into good fit model of this study. It was also reported by the resultsof the study that by including these two factors in the consumption motives;has develop the improvement in the predictive power of suggested theoreticalframework.
The results of the analysis indicatedthat the ecological motives and food safety concern has been positiveand significant impact on customer’s intention of purchasing food items withobserved beta values were 0.495 and 0.483 respectively. That elaborates, bothperform important role in purchasing behavior of customers but not highlystrong impact on purchase intention because the survey conducted in thatpopulation where the individual have not been concerned about environmentalprotection of food and food safety issue, such as the expiry date, artificialhealth additives and chemicals mix to made attractive products. There is needto develop the awareness based on ecological knowledge and food safety; andrequire to enhance involvement during purchase food. 5.2.
1.2 OBJ 2: Effect of consumptionmotives such as health consciousness, food safety concerns, personal consumertraits, situational factors and ecological motives with consumer involvement. Afterthe analysis performed, it concluded about the second objective of this study;that the each consumption motive of food choices have been positivelysignificant impact on consumer involvement (such as concern about availability,price and quality), that fulfill the second key objective is this study. Thesituational factors including timepressure and peer influence collectively, as the antecedent of purchaseintention have strongly positive and significant direct impact on consumerinvolvement, which observed beta value is 0.747; this result elaborates thatthe situation factors have been important to create or to increase the customerinvolvement.
The results mentioned that the 56 percent change exist in consumerinvolvement due to the situational factors that means more than half thesituational factor effected on involvement which is highly acceptable range.Therefore, manufacturer need to pay more attention and focus on situationalfactors that is customers prefers, in developing new strategies regarding foodproducts. Ascomparing the results of remaining five consumption motive’s effect on consumerinvolvement, observed that the consciousnessabout health it seems to be not highly important factor for the foodcustomer/respondents with beta significant value is 0.474 and only 22 percentvariation have been occurred in consumer involvement, that is considered withinthe rang to goodness of fit model. But to improve the association of healthconsciousness and involvement, need to understand the customer’s basic need andavoid the perceived risks.
Consciousness of health could be explained to therange to which the health of individual is merging into their daily intake orroutine food consumption (Basu & Dutta, 2008) (Dutta-Bergman, 2004). After the abovediscussions about the findings it concluded that the other remainingdeterminants of the purchase intention such as personal consumer traits, ecologicalmotives and food safety concernhave been measured significantly positive impact on the involvement ofcustomers in purchasing food; with the beta coefficient values, 0.665, 0.609and 0.
551 respectively. Higher the R square value shows that more variationcontained in involvement, as well as the lower the R square value shows lesschange in consumer involvement. These consumption factors play important roleto enhance involvement toward selecting food items. This study concluded thatidentified five consumption motives of this study have been positivelysignificant impact on consumer involvement as mentioned in discussion sectionof this chapter. 5.2.1.
3 OBJ 3: The consumer involvementimpact regarding food choices; on purchase intention. It is concluded that after the results of analysis performed inchapter four, the effect of consumer involvement during purchase intention offood items have not been vital and important role for the respondents in thearena of research survey. Both purchase intention and involvement of customersregarding food were have been positive and significantly significantcorrelated; therefore, observed value of R to be 0.595a but there was only 36 percent change is occurred in purchaseintention due to the involvement of customers in buying and identifying healthyfood products; that is near enough to sufficient requirement. Customers have topaying attention and need to more aware regarding choices of food to consume.As stated by (Bruwer, 2010) that is onlypossible when the manufacturers understand to fulfill the customer’s actualpreferences and needs to improve and develop the new products of food; whichdirectly maximize the purchasing level of food items and maintain the customerretention. 5.
2.1.4 OBJ 4: Mediating role of consumerinvolvement between increasing the purchase intention and food consumptionchoices in food related industry. As according to results of analysis of this study, it has revealedthat the data collected by the respondents was normal, the validity and reliabilityhave been checked on the bases of specific range of reliability; all variables’value of reliability is more than 0.7; now the data is reliable to proceedfurther and evaluate the coefficient correlation between each factors ofdependent independent and mediating variables that have been positivesignificant related and at the last the mediation effect partial between eachfactor of consumption motives and purchase intention.
As results mentioned in chapter 4; theanalysis have been concluded that the consumer involvement significantlypartial mediate between each consumption motive and purchase intention, that isconfirmed by the reduction of the direct relationships between independentfactors (i.e. personal consumer traits, ecological motives, situationalfactors, health consciousness and food safety concern) and dependent factor,i.e. purchase intention.
In additionally, the consumer involvement performed asmediation role to increase the relationship between purchase intention andconsumption motives regarding food choices. The consumer involvement inpurchase food item enhance the two way communication between customer and foodprovider, hence the food provider could easily receive the feedback andcustomer could easily give views or remarks about food products(Kelley, Donnelly & Skinner, 1990; Lovelock & Young, 1979; Mills &Moberg, 1982). 5.2.2CONTRIBUTION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH5.2.
2.1Theoretical It has been concluded thataccording to the previously in literature, there is not huge researches onspecific five identified consumption motives (such as, food safety, situationalfactors, ecological motives, personal consumer traits and health consciousness)through consumer involvement to enhance purchase decision and intention of food,might be it can provide the contribution that based enough knowledge about theconsumptions motive through consumer involvement toward purchase intention offood. Therefore, there is vacuum existing that filled with the help of thisresearch study. The results of this study reveals thetheoretical framework to understand the relationship between five consumptionmotive regarding food choices and customer intention to purchase in theexistence of mediation factor as involvement of customers in buying food.
Hopefullythis study provides the supportive information and knowledge about theidentified consumption factors influencing the purchasing intention of customerin the inclusion of involvement. Furthermore, the results of this study couldbe contributed in future studies and researches such as provide the guidance orreferences for further researches that relate with attributes of this study.220.127.116.11Practical Theanalysis based on the theoretical model of this study that reveal findings andsignificantly positive impacts of factors, this findings of study would playvital role for the continued improvement and establishment of the food industrythat understand the concerns, preferences and values of the customers; based oncustomer consumption motives in which as mentioned that the situational factorssuch as time pressure and peer influence has been highly most important factorregarding food purchase through involvement in purchasing.
The outcomes of theresearch analysis provide the practical implications for enhancing the purchaseof food through involvement of customers. Government and other food industriesneed to develop strategies to engage the customers to promote the motives offood consumption choices because these consumption motives have positivesignificant role in developing intention to purchase food items.The findings of this research areultimately help to know the alternative and different food choices for thecustomers to consume good quality and healthy food items from the market. Furthermore,the all five consumption motive have been exerting the significantly positiveimpact on the willingness and intention of customers to purchase food productsthat could be contributed in future to the development food industry strategiesand also could use to find the motives of food choices on which the purchaseintention is based and helpful to maximize the loyalty of customers, purchasinglevel of products and customer retention because customers choices andpreferences rapidly diverting from one product to other.
The food manufacturereasily avail the assess how to provide healthy quality food products to thecustomers and how to safeguard the customers from the low quality and harmfulfood for health.This study explores the factors that canprovide to the manufacturer and food business holder that help to understandthe customer’s food choices to increase the sales and productivity of the smallsize businesses. The findings of this study could be provided to the Governmentfood authorities, farm manufacturer, and department of agriculture and foodbusiness persons to understand the effects of identified consumption motiveregarding food choices through consumer involvement on purchase intention.Therefore, this study provides the guideline for the manufacture of the foodproducts and for food business, including government. RECOMMENDATION1.
Theresult of analysis reveals that there is need to be improving the methods tosolve the food safety related issues and protect the environmental surroundingssuch as the process of food manufacturing, store safely and animal welfare. 2. Thefood manufactures should have to interact directly with customers to increasethe customer involvement with product during purchasing behavior; the customerremarks or feedback easily collected for improvement.3. Byfocusing on the results of this investigation, understand the nature of thecustomer toward food purchasing, according to this it help to developstrategies to maximize the productivity and customer loyalty level with productwould enhance.4. Asaccording to observed outcomes, the consumer involvement play vital role inpurchase intention regarding food consumption motive, therefore, it required toestablish or develop CPM (customer participation management) in food businessesand food manufacture companies. It could only be possible after the developmentof CRM (customer relationship management).
5. Outof these identified five factors PFA (Punjab food authority) can easilydetermine the factor that greatly influence on purchase intention to increasecustomer involvement for the satisfaction of consumer concern about need orwants and his/her health care.6. Healthconsciousness is positive significant impact but have not been highlysignificant as according to perceived idea, it happened in this survey becauseof less awareness in respondents regarding health and the respondents have noenough knowledge to select food, hence there is need to develop strategies thathelp to enhance the food related awareness and knowledge that is enoughnecessary for health.7.
Foodmanufacturers should control the time shortage related issues, by provide theavailability of healthy or organic food products as compared to convenient food(fast food) in the pressure of short time.8. Food manufacture business or food outlets needto label the each attributes of the products clearly and easy to understand forevery type of customers, because lack of understanding caused barrier to payingattention on food safety, ecological motives and consciousness about health.9. Therelationship between the identified factors of this study could be measured indepth through qualitative research such as interviews.10.
This study is not focused to measure thedimensions of ecological motive, situational factors and personal consumertraits as mentioned in theoretical model. In future it could be measured theindividual dimensions of the each factors; such as ecologicalmotives-environmental protection and ethical concern/animal welfare;situational factors-time pressure and peer influence; personal consumertraits-need for interaction, novelty seeking, self efficiency, could beconducted as a individual variable to scrutinize the impact on purchaseintention through involvement of customer.11. For future research, it could be adaptedother sampling techniques and in different targeted area with differentsampling size.