The first development that had occurredwas the abolition of slavery. This was the first human rights issue to arouseinternational concern (African). The movement had begun in the late 18thcentury in Europe and gained momentum in the 19th century. TheEmancipation Act 1833 (UK) developed, but then was abolished through Britishcolonies. It became ceased in Europe by 1838. This issue led to a civil war inthe United States, and therefore was abolished in 1865, banned under Article 4and the UDHR. But, forms of slavery still exist such as child labour, traffickingof children and woman and the sale of children.

On average, 21 million peopleare still in force labour – 11.4 females and 9.5 million males.

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Also around 4.5million people are forces in sexual exploitation and 2 million by state orrebel groups. This can be seen by the Q v Tang 2008 case law and the Crimeslegislation Amendment ((Slavery, Slavery-like Conditions and PeopleTrafficking) Bill 1012)  In response to the industrialrevolution, trade unionism (first appeared in England in the early 19thcentury) and labour rights had developed. Trade unionism is an association ofwage earners which exists in order to maintain and improve working conditionsof members. It also protects the rights of workers against low wages, longhours and poor conditions. Article 23 (4) of the UDHR, ‘everyone had the rightto form and to join trade unions of the protection of his or her rights.’ Eventhough this is in place, many workers in developing countries are stillexploited, such as the Middle East and China. The fight for the recognition of fundamentalhuman rights include the Right to the enjoyment of just/favourable conditions ofwork – Article 7, The right to form and join trade unions – Article 8 and The right to anadequate standard of living – Article 11.

In Australia trade unions haveensured for minimum wages, right to form trade unions, equal pay for equal work, occupational health andsafety requirements and an a 40-hour working week. This can be overseen in thearticle, ‘Pope criticizes focus on idol called money.’