The first development that had occurred
was the abolition of slavery. This was the first human rights issue to arouse
international concern (African). The movement had begun in the late 18th
century in Europe and gained momentum in the 19th century. The
Emancipation Act 1833 (UK) developed, but then was abolished through British
colonies. It became ceased in Europe by 1838. This issue led to a civil war in
the United States, and therefore was abolished in 1865, banned under Article 4
and the UDHR. But, forms of slavery still exist such as child labour, trafficking
of children and woman and the sale of children. On average, 21 million people
are still in force labour – 11.4 females and 9.5 million males. Also around 4.5
million people are forces in sexual exploitation and 2 million by state or
rebel groups. This can be seen by the Q v Tang 2008 case law and the Crimes
legislation Amendment ((Slavery, Slavery-like Conditions and People
Trafficking) Bill 1012)


In response to the industrial
revolution, trade unionism (first appeared in England in the early 19th
century) and labour rights had developed. Trade unionism is an association of
wage earners which exists in order to maintain and improve working conditions
of members. It also protects the rights of workers against low wages, long
hours and poor conditions. Article 23 (4) of the UDHR, ‘everyone had the right
to form and to join trade unions of the protection of his or her rights.’ Even
though this is in place, many workers in developing countries are still
exploited, such as the Middle East and China. The fight for the recognition of fundamental
human rights include the Right to the enjoyment of just/favourable conditions of
work – Article 7, The right to form and join trade unions – Article 8 and The right to an
adequate standard of living – Article 11. In Australia trade unions have
ensured for minimum wages, right to form trade unions, equal pay for equal work, occupational health and
safety requirements and an a 40-hour working week. This can be overseen in the
article, ‘Pope criticizes focus on idol called money.’

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