The countermeasure of RogueBase Station and the return attack. For succeed on those declared attacks, ourresearch paper 5 proposed three constraints or strategies to secure thesharing of network; which are Digital Signature, Nonce and Timestamp. Thecountermeasure of Rogue Base Station and the return attack. For succeed onthose declared attacks, our research paper 5 proposed three constraints or strategies to secure thesharing of network; which are Digital Signature, Nonce and Timestamp.the Time Stamp if thesepackets are newly generated then it is receive otherwise it is discarded. In nonce repeat packet isdiscarded so DoS and replay attacks can be eliminated.

Digital Signatures areused to validate thedispatcher and for recognize the alternation of received packet. Applying DSbuilt verification of the dispatcher is actual to escape the above mentionattacks.  In 3 author has proposedthat LocDef arrangement authenticates either a given signal is that of anincumbent transmitter with the approximating of its position as well asdetecting the signal features. LocDef could be helpful to remove or moderatesome of the above-mentioned drawback. This scheme can eliminate the motivationof attacks. Malicious nodes could be thrown the undesirable packets on thechannels to halt these undesirable packets. The impression of flowcontrol which could be initiated at MAC level with the inclusion of timelimitation.

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Receiver describes the monitoring of Time Interval  that is why the sender is unable to transmitthe data regularly. If sender spreads the data on the high rate and receiver isreceiving packet regularly its means that the mentioned time interval and thereceiver identify the misconduct by one point / node which spread theinformation about malicious node.The key point is to protecting beside IE threats isto develop any new technique which could able to handle these situations andfor validating the genuineness of the incumbent signal.

 Paper 2 discusses the solution of IE attacks. Oneapproach is a signature which is embedding in the incumbent signal. One moreprocess is to work and verification procedure with incumbent transmitter and anauthenticator. Two techniques are being used the first is DRT which is DistanceRadio Test this use RSS which is received signal strength quantities gainedfrom the location verifier (LV).

Other technique is known as DDT which isdistance difference test. This procedure is being used whenever the signals arebeing transmitted by a signal point to LVs, the virtual phase variance could beidentified whenever the signal influences the two LVs because of opposinglocations from the sender.  Twoprevent SSDF attack paper 2 proposed two level of defense. The first phase ofall native spectrums deducting result must be validated from data collector. The main objective is to avoid thereturn attacks of untruthful data inoculation by the objects outside thenetworks. Second phase of protection is placement of data synthesis arrangementthat is forceful with compare to attacks of SSDF. In case of policy attack paper 8 suggests that incooperative policy can be freely exchanged and in non-cooperative nodes policyupdates and renewals can require infrequent. Effective rules could be replacedfreely and with self-assurance and kept for long time.

It is difficult thatattacker stops a CR even presence of some rules and regulations.  I n paper 9elaborates that without the knowledge of policy attacker can use differentfunny and obvious techniques to suppose about policy. This comes into picturethat the radio rule and regulations should be carefully check and validated todefend against the threats.  Toimprovement againstlearning, parameters and spectrum management threats paper 9 present asolution robust sensory input and mitigation in Network. In vigorous sensorythe data entry educating sensor, input can be considerably in helping inreduction of the acceptance of CR. In scattered situation the network of CR canfuses sensor data to increase throughput. All sensor contribution wouldconsider noisy with or without the occurrence of attackers, statistic cansometimes incorrect.

Author of the paper 89 defends against the commoncontrol channel use a robust coding of different spread spectrum. The schemesof the media access would be vigorous which could provide the fair access ofdata on the network. This fairness had to be brought around by the multiplelayers and the simple access arrangements which should have focus on thecontrol channels for which the need is preferable.  For alleviating jamming attacks in CRN, Spread Spectrumapproach is being used. The available spectrum band is divided into a number ofnon-overlapping channels.

From among this channel, only a small portion of thechannel is used for transmission at a time. The attacker can even jam achannel, but with negligible jamming effect or the channel may not be used bythe Cognitive Radio. Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes can be used toconstruct the lost data due to jamming attack in CRN. Intrusion DetectionSystem (IDS) also serve as valuable tool for detecting jamming attack. For securing against PUE attack, the transmitting sourceneeds to be identified, i.e.

, whether the transmitting source is a primary useror a malicious user. For this, cryptographic authentication mechanism can beapplied for identifying the user. As the FCC regulation does not allow alteringprimary user system, researchers opted to find the exact location of a primaryuser. If the transmitting source matches the location of the primary user, thesource is considered to be primary user. Otherwise, it is considered to be anattacker. To determine the location ofthe transmitting source, two approaches are considered, Distance Ratio Test(DRT) and Distance Difference Test (DDT), which is based on signal phase difference6. Objective Function attack modifies the parameter of the wireless media byjamming at a specific time and frequency in respect to the parameters definedin the policy. A simple solution to this attack is to define a threshold valuefor every updatable radio parameter 7.

This will prevent any communicationwhen one or more parameters do not fulfil its predefined threshold. IntrusionDetection System (IDS) can also be used to mitigate Objective Function attack. For securing against Spectrum Sensing DataFalsification (SSDF) attack, a data fusion technique called Weighted SequentialRatio Test (WSRT) is used 5. WSRT has two steps: Reputation maintenance andSequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT).

In reputation maintenance step, everynode has initial reputation value equal to zero. Upon each correct localspectrum report, the reputation value will be increased by 1.