The countermeasure of Rogue
Base Station and the return attack. For succeed on those declared attacks, our
research paper 5 proposed three constraints or strategies to secure the
sharing of network; which are Digital Signature, Nonce and Timestamp. The
countermeasure of Rogue Base Station and the return attack. For succeed on
those declared attacks, our research paper 5 proposed three constraints or strategies to secure the
sharing of network; which are Digital Signature, Nonce and Timestamp.the Time Stamp if these
packets are newly generated then it is receive otherwise it is discarded. In nonce repeat packet is
discarded so DoS and replay attacks can be eliminated. Digital Signatures are
used to validate the
dispatcher and for recognize the alternation of received packet. Applying DS
built verification of the dispatcher is actual to escape the above mention
attacks.  In 3 author has proposed
that LocDef arrangement authenticates either a given signal is that of an
incumbent transmitter with the approximating of its position as well as
detecting the signal features. LocDef could be helpful to remove or moderate
some of the above-mentioned drawback. This scheme can eliminate the motivation
of attacks. Malicious nodes could be thrown the undesirable packets on the
channels to halt these undesirable packets. The impression of flow
control which could be initiated at MAC level with the inclusion of time
limitation. Receiver describes the monitoring of Time Interval  that is why the sender is unable to transmit
the data regularly. If sender spreads the data on the high rate and receiver is
receiving packet regularly its means that the mentioned time interval and the
receiver identify the misconduct by one point / node which spread the
information about malicious node.

The key point is to protecting beside IE threats is
to develop any new technique which could able to handle these situations and
for validating the genuineness of the incumbent signal. Paper 2 discusses the solution of IE attacks. One
approach is a signature which is embedding in the incumbent signal. One more
process is to work and verification procedure with incumbent transmitter and an
authenticator. Two techniques are being used the first is DRT which is Distance
Radio Test this use RSS which is received signal strength quantities gained
from the location verifier (LV). Other technique is known as DDT which is
distance difference test. This procedure is being used whenever the signals are
being transmitted by a signal point to LVs, the virtual phase variance could be
identified whenever the signal influences the two LVs because of opposing
locations from the sender.  Two
prevent SSDF attack paper 2 proposed two level of defense. The first phase of
all native spectrums deducting result must be validated from data collector. The main objective is to avoid the
return attacks of untruthful data inoculation by the objects outside the
networks. Second phase of protection is placement of data synthesis arrangement
that is forceful with compare to attacks of SSDF.

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In case of policy attack paper 8 suggests that in
cooperative policy can be freely exchanged and in non-cooperative nodes policy
updates and renewals can require infrequent. Effective rules could be replaced
freely and with self-assurance and kept for long time. It is difficult that
attacker stops a CR even presence of some rules and regulations.


 I n paper 9
elaborates that without the knowledge of policy attacker can use different
funny and obvious techniques to suppose about policy. This comes into picture
that the radio rule and regulations should be carefully check and validated to
defend against the threats.


improvement against
learning, parameters and spectrum management threats paper 9 present a
solution robust sensory input and mitigation in Network. In vigorous sensory
the data entry educating sensor, input can be considerably in helping in
reduction of the acceptance of CR. In scattered situation the network of CR can
fuses sensor data to increase throughput. All sensor contribution would
consider noisy with or without the occurrence of attackers, statistic can
sometimes incorrect. Author of the paper 89 defends against the common
control channel use a robust coding of different spread spectrum. The schemes
of the media access would be vigorous which could provide the fair access of
data on the network. This fairness had to be brought around by the multiple
layers and the simple access arrangements which should have focus on the
control channels for which the need is preferable.


For alleviating jamming attacks in CRN, Spread Spectrum
approach is being used. The available spectrum band is divided into a number of
non-overlapping channels. From among this channel, only a small portion of the
channel is used for transmission at a time. The attacker can even jam a
channel, but with negligible jamming effect or the channel may not be used by
the Cognitive Radio. Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes can be used to
construct the lost data due to jamming attack in CRN. Intrusion Detection
System (IDS) also serve as valuable tool for detecting jamming attack. For securing against PUE attack, the transmitting source
needs to be identified, i.e., whether the transmitting source is a primary user
or a malicious user. For this, cryptographic authentication mechanism can be
applied for identifying the user. As the FCC regulation does not allow altering
primary user system, researchers opted to find the exact location of a primary
user. If the transmitting source matches the location of the primary user, the
source is considered to be primary user. Otherwise, it is considered to be an
attacker. To determine the location of
the transmitting source, two approaches are considered, Distance Ratio Test
(DRT) and Distance Difference Test (DDT), which is based on signal phase difference
6. Objective Function attack modifies the parameter of the wireless media by
jamming at a specific time and frequency in respect to the parameters defined
in the policy. A simple solution to this attack is to define a threshold value
for every updatable radio parameter 7. This will prevent any communication
when one or more parameters do not fulfil its predefined threshold. Intrusion
Detection System (IDS) can also be used to mitigate Objective Function attack.


For securing against Spectrum Sensing Data
Falsification (SSDF) attack, a data fusion technique called Weighted Sequential
Ratio Test (WSRT) is used 5. WSRT has two steps: Reputation maintenance and
Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT). In reputation maintenance step, every
node has initial reputation value equal to zero. Upon each correct local
spectrum report, the reputation value will be increased by 1.