The Music Industry, when we hear those words many of ourminds automatically think of a musical artist(s) creating, releasing andperforming their music. However, the music industry is so much more than that.In this article, I’ll be focusing on exploring the four principal areas of themusic industry, which are live performances, record companies, music publishingcompanies and artist management.
A Live Performance is a showcase performed by an artist ormusicians to an audience who are fans of the performers music. A LivePerformance is more than just a musician performing to their fans it’s aboutthe setup of the performance, how it’s promoted, how the tour and managementteam plan the performance, this can include retailing, tickets, backstage,front of house, performing rights, riders and health and safety.Thepower shift in the music industry reflects a money shift. Following the trendof Internet file sharing, a whole generation of music fans don’t pay to downloadmusic, but they will pay to go see their favourite artists perform live, or fora T-shirt because it’s seen as a once in a lifetime experience that you can’tdownload. Major artists might now get three-quarters of their income fromtouring.In the last decade Live Performances has increasingly been avey vital part of the music industry for the lives of artists and musiciansbecause of the global decrease in sales for recorded music because of the waytechnology has changed and allowed music listeners to easily access recordedmusic online for free. This has caused artists and musicians’ main source ofincome to come from live performances and merchandise. Some of the most popularlive arenas to perform in the UK are The O2 Arena, The Manchester Arena, TheBarclaycard Arena in Birmingham and Wembley Arena.
In the Live Performance sector, there are many people neededfor different jobs to ensure that a live performance is successful. Thisincludes agents, promoters, technicians/crew and security. An agents job is tosecure gigs/shows and work with artists and their management. They establishcontracts with promoters to send press releases to print newspapers, magazines,media, radio, TV, performance and billboards to promote live performances.Promoters can get journalists to write reviews and interviews. Promoterspurchase acts directly from agents and are responsible for organisinggigs/shows and live venues and ensuring that all those who need to be paid arepaid.
Promoters send press releases to all social media like Facebook, twitterand Instagram and print out and organise posters, flyers for the upcoming showsaround the area of the performance. Promoters will also provide a rider whichis a set of requests or demands that a performer sets as criteria forperformance, riders include technical and hospitality. Dera Shelton who worksin Music Publishing for Sony/ATV advise promoters on how to have successfulshow to promote a show as soon as it’s booked and to get the performers tocommunicate through videos with fans through social media.
Another great ideaShelton spoke about is having a ticket giveaway which will encourage fans topost about it which will get their followers interested which will ultimatelybring new fans to get involved. Shelton said, “A targeted plan and budget areessential for successfully promoting a show”. She encouraged the performersthat have an established mailing list they can send out emails periodicallydetails about tickets and transport. Shelton made it clear that you shouldn’tmake the mistake of promoting last minute and to make sure target promotionefforts to the right target audience. Event/Tour Managersare hired by the artist or the artist manger to deal with the daily managementtasks whilst on the tour, this can include getting the band from show to showto accumulating expenses, booking hotels and flights, provide security ifneeded. They also need to provide a merchandising space, box offices,stagehands, sound and lights and refreshment outlets.
Music events require much planning,and many suggest that a team, which is usually the crew/technicians, is put inplace to take control of this planning process. To ensurehealth and safety rules are put into place a risk assessment which includes anemergency plan and a first aid plan that should be prepared for crowd surges,injuries and other major incidents including crowd clashes with neighbouringsports and social venues. Therisks must not be ignored, and solutions should be put in place. Thecrew/technicians pay extra attention to laws and legislations to ensure thatthey provide a safe environment for the artist/musicians, workers and audiences.It’s greatly advised that they follow The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974and the Noise at Work Regulations 2005.The world’s biggest concert promoter is Live Nation and itowns or operates gig venues, giant rock arenas and music festival sites in morethan 40 countries around the globe which include the Brixton Academy andWembley Arena in London.
Front of house is the part of a performance venue that isopen to the public, there are many types of front of house. One type of Frontof House is someone who controls the sound for example Jim Bedon who is thecontrols the Front of House for Maroon 5. Brian Gaynair, who works as the Frontof House manager, works in a theatre and is responsible for the day to dayrunning of the theatre, taking care of the audience and making sure they arehappy. Record CompaniesA record company is a brand or trademark associated with themarketing of music recordings and videos, they sign, develop, record, promote,publicize and sell music.There are many functions of a record company which is torecruit new artists, get their A to develop them, sort out copyrightenforcement and music publishing.Before signing artists, record labels would create acontract which included terms and conditions for their artists, this caninclude the amount of money the artist earns. They can use contracts to controlthe lyrics used and the genre of music the artists chose to record; many evenown the masters of the artists’ tracks. Many record labels say the contractsare always in the artists favour but there have been many cases where thatstatement has been disproved.
In many cases the relationship between artistsand record labels has been tarnished because many contracts are not mutuallybeneficial especially for the artist.Before technology advanced through the internet record labelswould have their record label logos and their contact information in the centreof vinyl records, which is how labels such as Arista, Capitol and Epic becamehousehold names.In the most recent years, the popularity of signing to a majorrecord label has rapidly decreased because the internet has allowed artists tobe successful independently through social media at a much lower cost.Record labels now offer 360 dealswhere artists receive money from their album sales, media appearances andproduct appearances, and product endorsements like perfumes or sportswear.List of Record Labels in the UK:1. Sony Music UK2. Kobalt3. EMI Records4.
Warner Bros Music5. Universal6. Atlantic Records A, which means artist andrepertoire, oversees discovering new talent through many different platformslike YouTube, where Justin Bieber was found, social media and listening todemos that are sent in.A are responsible for developing the artists they find and their musicuntil they are ready to be marketed, and initiating their involvement with thelabel do everything from assistingwith song selection to choosing the people that will produce the album todeciding where the album will be recorded.
Record labels have contracts with distribution companies that sendtheir records to stores, whether physical or digital. Sending records to storesdigitally has now become the primary format because of the advancement intechnology and has also caused a cost reduction of not having to producephysical products like vinyl’s and CDs, most labels only release recordsdigitally through digital stores like iTunes, Spotify and Apple Music. Record Companies – majors and independents, finding andsigning artists, recording studios retail, distribution, internet salespromotion, distribution and retail, merchandisingPopular Record Labels in the UK:Sony Music, EMI Records, Universal, Warner Music and AtlanticRecordsA record label or record company is a brand or trademarkassociated with the marketing of music recordings and videos.Independents only account for 15% of the market – there arefar more labels now than at any point Music Publishing CompaniesMusic Publishing Companies – finding songwriters/composers,A, promotion, music sales and live broadcast, intellectual property andcopyright management, performing rights and piracy, and industry organisations.Publishing, copyright, sales, composer and artistdevelopment Music Piracy Geoff Taylor from the BPIMusic piracy s copying and distributing of copies of s pieceof music for which the musician or copyright-holding record company did notgive their consent. Composers like Beethoven was affected by pirated copies ofhis music which caused him to lose out on a lot of income he could’ve made frompublishing.The cost of piracy to the UK is 200 million pounds a yearThe bpi is the British recorded music industry’s tradeassociationBPI represents the UK’srecorded music industry, which is one of the most exciting and thriving musicsectors in the world.
British artists account for one in eight albums purchasedby fans around the globe. RIAA – Recording Industry American AssociationIn the music industry, a music publisher (or publishingcompany) is responsible for ensuring the songwriters and composers receivepayment when their compositions are used commercially.Music Publishers AssociationTechnology has revolutionised the businessCaroline EllerayHead of AUniversal Music PublishingThe publisher – songwriter relationshipJake Gosling – SongwriterThe Internet helps you see how your music has communicatedwith the audience from the views Stephen Navin – Chief Executive of Music PublishersAssociationNigel Elderton – European President, peermusicThe writer writes and composes, or some perform as wellMaking the dreams of the artist is the job of the publisherHunt down income that they haven’t received Invest time money creativity and passionAdvocate – Get people to believe in the artist and make themwant to be a part of itBusiness infrastructureCommissioning work, registering the work and promoting theworkOpportunities to raise their profile Publisher sends the music it to radio turns it into sheetmusic, increases record salesSend it to films, the tv, games and apps and performing live PRS – Performing Right Society- Venues & Festivals- Broadcasters MCPS – Mechanical-Copyright Protection SocietySynchronization – Becca Gatrell – Head of Film + Television CreativeTypes of publishing companies – Elaine van der School, VP Production Production Music – user signs up to the PRS Easily clearable worldwide instantlyEasy to budgetEasily Streaming sites – SpotifySheet music downloadable on technological devices Artist Management Artist Management – business management, sponsorship, tourmanagement, artists’ and managers’ rights and merchandisingArtists, songwriter/composer, managerManagers oversee managing all business aspects of theartist’s or the band’s career this allows the talent to focus entirely oncreating the music.
Marc Oswald – Artist ManagerTop 10 of all live concerts produced in the world historywith events over 340,000. His job is to articulate the vision of the artistsTouring television, merchandising, publishing, record label,booking agency, public relations, radio promotionOversee each component of the business part of their careerJeff DorenfeldThis guy worked with Ozzy Osbourne tours alongside SharonOsbourne and was the personal manager of the multiplatinum band Boston. Underhis management, the band has no.
1 Billboard charting album and a $25 milliongrossing tour.Artist should have a vision and the manger should help makethat vision come through.Artist controls art and the manager controls the businessside.The manager drives the artist in the direction they want togo in.
Recording live performances to promote new consumersIncreases income for artist gain more fans from onlineMerchandise to promote artist/brand, which they can makemoney fromArtist Managers in the UK:1. Richard Griffiths and Harry Magee – Modest!Management – Little Mix, One Direction, Niall Horan, Olly Murs, 5 Seconds ofSumer2. Jonathan Dickins – September Management – Adele3. Colin Lester – Wildlife Entertainment – CraigDavid Small Label:The role can be varied.
A managerresponsible for an unsigned band or musician or signed to a small label (suchas 4AD, Matador Records or XL) often multiple hats, promoter, agent,accountant, or any kind of professional the artist needs to perform and have aviable career. Big Label:A manager working for an artistworking for a large label (such as Warner Music Group, EMI or Sony Music)functions in more of a managerial capacity and supervises the other peopleemployed by the musician(s). These managers have oversight and ensure thatessentials such as advertising and PR (Public Relations) campaigns are runningsmoothly, that tours are being booked and that artists get paid.