The human body hasten biological systems that carry out specific functions, which are beneficialfor our everyday living. The anatomical features of the human biological systemsare as follows: · The renalsystem: Consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urethra, the bladder andtwo sphincter muscles. This is designed to produce, store and eliminate waste productssuch as urea, excess ions and water from the bloodstream in the form of urine. Thismeans that the renal system acts like a filtering system. It is also responsiblefor maintaining the homeostasis of water, for balancing the body’s pH levels aswell as blood pressure. The · Theimmune system: It defends the body against pathogenic microbes that areexposed to the human body every day. The body’s defensive mechanism is achievedthrough a series of steps called the immune response.
This attacks disease-causingmicrobes which are likely to invade the body’s system. The immune system isalso composed of specialised cells, various tissues, organs and proteins thatwork together to protect the body. One of the main cells involved in the body’sdefensive activity is the white blood cells, also known as leukocytes. Theseare produced in many parts of the body. The organs and tissues involved in the immunesystem are called lymphoid organs which are; spleen, bone marrow, thymus, appendix,lymph nodes, tonsils and the Peyer’s patches found throughout the small intestinalduct. Primarily, leukocytes come in two types; phagocytes and lymphocytes. Thephagocytic cells chew harmful microorganism whilst the lymphatic cells allowthe body recognise previous infectious microbes and help the body to destroythem.
Lymphocytes also consist of two types of cells; B- cells and T-cells.B-cells produce antibodies to attack foreign antigens that cause harm to thebody. T-cells, however, has two main functions; to recognise and destroymalignant cells, and to orchestrate an immune response which play a vital role inimmunity.