The human body has
ten biological systems that carry out specific functions, which are beneficial
for our everyday living. The anatomical features of the human biological systems
are as follows:


The renal
system: Consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urethra, the bladder and
two sphincter muscles. This is designed to produce, store and eliminate waste products
such as urea, excess ions and water from the bloodstream in the form of urine. This
means that the renal system acts like a filtering system. It is also responsible
for maintaining the homeostasis of water, for balancing the body’s pH levels as
well as blood pressure. The

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immune system: It defends the body against pathogenic microbes that are
exposed to the human body every day. The body’s defensive mechanism is achieved
through a series of steps called the immune response. This attacks disease-causing
microbes which are likely to invade the body’s system. The immune system is
also composed of specialised cells, various tissues, organs and proteins that
work together to protect the body. One of the main cells involved in the body’s
defensive activity is the white blood cells, also known as leukocytes. These
are produced in many parts of the body. The organs and tissues involved in the immune
system are called lymphoid organs which are; spleen, bone marrow, thymus, appendix,
lymph nodes, tonsils and the Peyer’s patches found throughout the small intestinal
duct. Primarily, leukocytes come in two types; phagocytes and lymphocytes. The
phagocytic cells chew harmful microorganism whilst the lymphatic cells allow
the body recognise previous infectious microbes and help the body to destroy
them. Lymphocytes also consist of two types of cells; B- cells and T-cells.

B-cells produce antibodies to attack foreign antigens that cause harm to the
body. T-cells, however, has two main functions; to recognise and destroy
malignant cells, and to orchestrate an immune response which play a vital role in