There have been various debates around the world regarding whether being presented withmedia violenceprompts expanded levels of violence. In spite of media being difficult to characterize, a few specialists have seen brutalityto be a demonstration or a risk to harm or even murder somebody regardless to whichever strategy may be used to carry out the task. (Barlow and Hill, 1995). This review will be looking at how different aspects of the media and whether or not there is a connectionto violent behaviour. Violence and Television Our preoccupation with various forms of crime filmsin recent years reflects the hard reality of life in the street, or even in the board room or the Oval Office where hostile takeover and clandestine policiesundermine our hopes for stability in a high-pressure environment. (Art Sliverblatt). Male (1997) suggeststhat without violence cinema they wouldnot have amounted to much. And that violence is of central importance for the popular appeal of films, Princes (2006).
Cunningham(1992) discovered that the behaviour effects theory research provesthat viewers learn from television to consider violence appropriate behaviourwhereas Wilsion et al (1998) argues that certain depictions of violence pose more of a risk for viewers than others. One main factor that causes concern about violence on television is the easy access which young children have toit. Although cinemas have an age restriction, home television viewers don’t. From the point of view of developmental psychology, children begin to develop ‘ behaviour patterns, attitudes, qualities and social interaction’ (Murray 1993). Studiesshows by the time an American child leaves elementary school a child would have seen 8000 murders and nearly 100,000 different acts of violence on television (Bushman and Huesmann 2001).This means being exposed to adult television, children begin to witness violence from a youngage. More research shows in the United states ‘there are four times more violent acts in children cartoons than adult programs'(Gerbner et al 1995).
The main weakness of this theoryis that research has only been done in the United States and hasn’t beencompared to other countries around the world. However, Buckingham et al (1999) keenly refute assertions that cartoons negatively impact onchildren. Sparks (1992) suggest that violence in children’s television does not aim to promote violence, but use it as ‘simple technique forthe arousal of excitement’ and that the viciousness is being set apart as unbelievableby ideals of its extremely extravagance and its perception of an adapted movementwith the goal that it holds its meaning of ‘excitement’ whiles being liberatedfrom any disturbing power.
Paik and Comstock (1994) had viewed 217psychological studies on the effect television violence has on viewers, this concluded that violence has ‘highly significant, albeit, in some cases’. Many writers have challenged Paik and Comstock claim on the grounds that theyhad only had reviewed 217 studied. Cantor (1998), Tulloch and Tulloch (1993)argued that children’s views to violence on television is gendered, for boys there was an articulated connection between discovering pleasure in theseimages of violence and attestations of masculinity rather than young ladies tend tosee the show as more genuine and less engaging. There is a hazard included when individuals are not in a position toseparate how and while being presented to media viciousness prompts levels offorceful conduct in people (Johnson, 2002). At the point when kids and young adults are presented to media violence through television their feelings, considerations and practices are instantly influencedand stimulated. The majority agree that there is a connection between violent behaviourdue to violent media.
(MTSB, 1998). Adults television programs promote specific understanding of violenceand urge watchers to embrace certain ideological position in connection toviolence, ‘conceiving some types as ‘legitimate and some asillegitimate'(Sparks 1992). Docherty (1990) presented that there is more concerning the portrayal of violence in realistic programs that ‘escapist genres’. As such,much of the contemporary research on violence has focused on the influence of violencein television, movies as ethology for forceful conduct. This research, in thiscase, has not given an experimentally clear connection between media and violence(Ferguson & Kilburn, 2009). Violence and pornography Anderson et al.
2010) statesthat “direct media impacts and causation more subtle question of whether violence and aggressive sexual norms havebeen promotedand influenced by media content”. Baldwin and Lewis (1972) argue that there isnot ‘one hundredth’ as much violence on the media then in today’s societywhereas H.J.
Eysenck & D.K.B.Nias (1978) suggest that is a ‘close connection’between pornographic and violence and these films stimulate violence. Senn andRadtke (1990) states that there is a difference between ‘erotic, nonviolent pornographyand violent pornography, therefore not all pornography promotes violence. Most sexualpornography magazines or films content is nonviolent however people who may beinto sexual aggression may form violent sexual fantasies using ‘sexuallynonviolent depictions’ (Marshall, 1988).
Although most pornography is view asnature some has represented rape and homicide, “Evidenceof the influence of exposure to pornography on sexual violence’s isinconsistent at best” (Dwyer, 2008; Segal, 1994). Many argue that accessibilityand exposure to explicit pornography build negative attitudes about females andsexuality. Those with this view recommend that exposure to pornographydesensitizes watchers in this manner expanding the danger of committing rape orassault. Others trust pornography might help to free the urge of sexual violence,which would reduce the desire to participate in sex crimes such as rape(Ferguson& Hartley 2009). McKee (2007), however, “found no relationshipbetween pornography consumption and negative attitudes toward women”.Pornography portrays women as ‘second-class citizens and sexual objects for aman sexual use, pornography is said to strengthen the western social view thatmen naturally dominate, a view that is frequently depicted in the media inviolent ways such as rape and beatings( Weaver & Carter 2003).
Rodgersonand Wilson (1991) present similar views that “there is a clear and direct linkbetween pornography and violence against women”. Garcia (1984) found that themore men were exposed to pornography, the more negative their states of mindwere toward females and the more positive their attitudes were towardsdemonstrations of sexual violence. Prentkyand Knight (1977) indicated that the degree of sexual arousal caused bywatching pornography can relate to ‘frequency of offending and the amount ofviolence in the offences’. “As a result of repeated viewings, the offendersthemselves assume a more deviant and aggressive nature” (Johnson 2011). However,Rubin (1993) questioned this hypothesis and argues that mainstream media ismore violent and sexist that pornography. Pornography can cause people to developviolent sexual fantasies which they might act on. Violence and Video games Bandura(1986) suggest that playing violent video games would result to stimulation ofviolent behaviour and that young children would ‘imitate what they see on thescreen’. However Feshbach & Singer (1971) points out that playing violentvideo games would lead to have a relaxing and positive effect on a child’sbehaviour.
According to research facts show that Eric Harris a video gameaddict to ‘reconfigured a violent video game as a dry run for a deadly shootingat a school’ (Hubbard 1999). However, (Craig and Petley 2001) suggest thatviolence is everywhere and not only featured in video games and cannot be ‘avoided’.Andersonand Bushman (2002) found that violent video games was “significantly associatedwith increases in violent behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affectand physiological arousal”.
Whereas (Economist 2005) argues that there is notno solid evidence that proves that violent video games have a negative effecton people. Anderson & Huesmann (2003), also propose that both males andfemales who engage in violent video games can engage in violence outside ofgaming and that playing violent games ‘yielded a more aggressive self-conceptthan playing nonviolent games’. Donnerstein & Berkowitz (1981) also statethat combining of sex and violence in entertainment can lead male viewers to be’more physically assaultive towards females’.
Gentile et al (2004) research found that young adults who played moreviolent video games result to getting involved in physical violence andaggressive behaviours. Anderson and Bushman’s (2001) ‘meta-analyses’results show that the effect between violent video games and aggressive behaviourswas 0.19 in both adults and children, also that playing violent videogames increasedlevels of frustration more than a nonviolent video game. Anderson and Dill(2000) demonstrated that undergrads’ reports of violent video game played inearlier years were identified with violent actions that would be viewed as criminalsuch as assault if known to police. Similarly, Gentile et al (2004) discovered significantconnections between violent video games exposure and violent in school.