There have been various debates around the world regarding whether being presented with
media violence
prompts expanded levels of violence. In spite of media being difficult to characterize, a few specialists have seen brutality
to be a demonstration or a risk to harm or even murder somebody regardless to whichever strategy may be used to carry out the task. (Barlow and Hill, 1995). This review will be looking at how different aspects of the media and whether or not there is a connection
to violent behaviour.  

 

Violence and Television

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Our preoccupation with various forms of crime films
in recent years reflects the hard reality of life in the street, or even in the board room or the Oval Office where hostile takeover and clandestine policies
undermine our hopes for stability in a high-pressure environment. (Art Sliverblatt). Male (1997) suggests
that without violence cinema they would
not have amounted to much. And that violence is of central importance for the popular appeal of films, Princes (2006). Cunningham
(1992) discovered that the behaviour effects theory research proves
that viewers learn from television to consider violence appropriate behaviour
whereas Wilsion et al (1998) argues that certain depictions of violence pose more of a risk for viewers than others. One main factor that causes concern about violence on television is the easy access which young children have to
it. Although cinemas have an age restriction, home television viewers don’t. From the point of view of developmental psychology, children begin to develop ‘ behaviour patterns, attitudes, qualities and social interaction’ (Murray 1993). Studies
shows by the time an American child leaves elementary school a child would have seen 8000 murders and nearly 100,000 different acts of violence on television (Bushman and Huesmann 2001).
This means being exposed to adult television, children begin to witness violence from a young
age. More research shows in the United states ‘there are four times more violent acts in children cartoons than adult programs'(Gerbner et al 1995). The main weakness of this theory
is that research has only been done in the United States and hasn’t been
compared to other countries around the world. However, Buckingham et al (1999) keenly refute assertions that cartoons negatively impact on
children. Sparks (1992) suggest that violence in children’s television does not aim to promote violence, but use it as ‘simple technique for
the arousal of excitement’ and that the viciousness is being set apart as unbelievable
by ideals of its extremely extravagance and its perception of an adapted movement
with the goal that it holds its meaning of ‘excitement’ whiles being liberated
from any disturbing power. Paik and Comstock (1994) had viewed 217
psychological studies on the effect television violence has on viewers, this concluded that violence has ‘highly significant, albeit, in some cases’. Many writers have challenged Paik and Comstock claim on the grounds that they
had only had reviewed 217 studied. Cantor (1998), Tulloch and Tulloch (1993)
argued that children’s views to violence on television is gendered, for boys there was an articulated connection between discovering pleasure in these
images of violence and attestations of masculinity rather than young ladies tend to
see the show as more genuine and less engaging. There is a hazard included when individuals are not in a position to
separate how and while being presented to media viciousness prompts levels of
forceful conduct in people (Johnson, 2002). At the point when kids and young adults are presented to media violence through television their feelings, considerations and practices are instantly influenced
and stimulated. The majority agree that there is a connection between violent behaviour
due to violent media. (MTSB, 1998). Adults television programs promote specific understanding of violence
and urge watchers to embrace certain ideological position in connection to
violence, ‘conceiving some types as ‘legitimate and some as
illegitimate'(Sparks 1992). Docherty (1990) presented that there is more concerning the portrayal of violence in realistic programs that ‘escapist genres’. As such,
much of the contemporary research on violence has focused on the influence of violence
in television, movies as ethology for forceful conduct. This research, in this
case, has not given an experimentally clear connection between media and violence
(Ferguson & Kilburn, 2009).

 

Violence and pornography

 

Anderson et al. 2010) states
that “direct media impacts and causation more subtle question of whether violence and aggressive sexual norms have
been promoted
and influenced by media content”. Baldwin and Lewis (1972) argue that there is
not ‘one hundredth’ as much violence on the media then in today’s society
whereas H.J.Eysenck & D.K.B.Nias (1978) suggest that is a ‘close connection’
between pornographic and violence and these films stimulate violence. Senn and
Radtke (1990) states that there is a difference between ‘erotic, nonviolent pornography
and violent pornography, therefore not all pornography promotes violence. Most sexual
pornography magazines or films content is nonviolent however people who may be
into sexual aggression may form violent sexual fantasies using ‘sexually
nonviolent depictions’ (Marshall, 1988). Although most pornography is view as
nature some has represented rape and homicide, “Evidence
of the influence of exposure to pornography on sexual violence’s is
inconsistent at best” (Dwyer, 2008; Segal, 1994). Many argue that accessibility
and exposure to explicit pornography build negative attitudes about females and
sexuality. Those with this view recommend that exposure to pornography
desensitizes watchers in this manner expanding the danger of committing rape or
assault. Others trust pornography might help to free the urge of sexual violence,
which would reduce the desire to participate in sex crimes such as rape
(Ferguson& Hartley 2009). McKee (2007), however, “found no relationship
between pornography consumption and negative attitudes toward women”.
Pornography portrays women as ‘second-class citizens and sexual objects for a
man sexual use, pornography is said to strengthen the western social view that
men naturally dominate, a view that is frequently depicted in the media in
violent ways such as rape and beatings( Weaver & Carter 2003). Rodgerson
and Wilson (1991) present similar views that “there is a clear and direct link
between pornography and violence against women”. Garcia (1984) found that the
more men were exposed to pornography, the more negative their states of mind
were toward females and the more positive their attitudes were towards
demonstrations of sexual violence. Prentky
and Knight (1977) indicated that the degree of sexual arousal caused by
watching pornography can relate to ‘frequency of offending and the amount of
violence in the offences’. “As a result of repeated viewings, the offenders
themselves assume a more deviant and aggressive nature” (Johnson 2011). However,
Rubin (1993) questioned this hypothesis and argues that mainstream media is
more violent and sexist that pornography. Pornography can cause people to develop
violent sexual fantasies which they might act on.

 

Violence and Video games

 

Bandura
(1986) suggest that playing violent video games would result to stimulation of
violent behaviour and that young children would ‘imitate what they see on the
screen’. However Feshbach & Singer (1971) points out that playing violent
video games would lead to have a relaxing and positive effect on a child’s
behaviour. According to research facts show that Eric Harris a video game
addict to ‘reconfigured a violent video game as a dry run for a deadly shooting
at a school’ (Hubbard 1999). However, (Craig and Petley 2001) suggest that
violence is everywhere and not only featured in video games and cannot be ‘avoided’.

Anderson
and Bushman (2002) found that violent video games was “significantly associated
with increases in violent behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect
and physiological arousal”. Whereas (Economist 2005) argues that there is not
no solid evidence that proves that violent video games have a negative effect
on people. Anderson & Huesmann (2003), also propose that both males and
females who engage in violent video games can engage in violence outside of
gaming and that playing violent games ‘yielded a more aggressive self-concept
than playing nonviolent games’. Donnerstein & Berkowitz (1981) also state
that combining of sex and violence in entertainment can lead male viewers to be
‘more physically assaultive towards females’. 
Gentile et al (2004) research found that young adults who played more
violent video games result to getting involved in physical violence and
aggressive behaviours. Anderson and Bushman’s (2001) ‘meta-analyses’
results show that the effect between violent video games and aggressive behaviours
was 0.19 in both adults and children, also that playing violent videogames increased
levels of frustration more than a nonviolent video game. Anderson and Dill
(2000) demonstrated that undergrads’ reports of violent video game played in
earlier years were identified with violent actions that would be viewed as criminal
such as assault if known to police. Similarly, Gentile et al (2004) discovered significant
connections between violent video games exposure and violent in school.