There are several research and methodthat are using specialize sensor that put in the vehicle.
Below table arerefer. Research Model / Propose System Description Distributed mobile sensor computing system called Cartel 5. · Collecting and process data will be send to portal based upon the continuous queries which are processed by continuous query processor on remote nodes and it’s include a set of sensors installed in vehicles. · Use sensors like GPS for monitoring the movements of vehicles.
· CarTel includes, CafNet a networking stack that uses opportunistic connection (e.g. Wi-Fi, Bluetooth) to transfer information between portal and remote nodes. · currently does not offer a way to aggregate information gathered across different users and it does not include machine learning; it just replies to the queries based upon the data stored in relational database Pothole Patrol system 6 · 3-axis accelerometer and GPS mounted on the dashboard to monitor road surface · Also differentiate potholes from other road anomalies.
· collects the signals using accelerometer and use machine-learning algorithms to identify potholes · signals are then passed through a series of signal processing filters, where each filter is designed in such a way that it will reject one or more non-pothole events (manholes, expansion joints, railroad crossing) RCM-TAGPS System 7 · Collects the sensor data using three-axis accelerometer and GPS · Sensor data has 4-tuples: current time, location, velocity and three direction accelerations. · Cleaning the data before processing or analyzing it to deal with technical challenges like GPS error, and transmission error · Analyses the Power Spectral Density (PSD) to detect pavement roughness using Fourier transform. · The International Roughness Index (IRI) is calculated based upon PSD. The pavement roughness is then classified in four levels (excellent, good, qualified and unqualified) according to, the Technical Code of Maintenance for Urban Road CJJ36-2006, one of the industry standards in the People’s Republic of China. · The system provides the evaluation of a section of road based upon its roughness.
However, this system does not provide the proper location of pothole, bump or manhole.