To sum up the final results of the study, this study attempted to seek answers to three questions. The questions will be restated and the answers, based on the findings of the study, will be provided below.
To what extend the design of a syllabus improves proficiency in the listening comprehension skill?
The findings here can serve as a reference for instructors who want to diagnose the learning difficulties of students and to help them to tackle these difficulties effectively.
The first question instructors need to examine is, “Does learner’s listening habits and belief about listening comprehension contradict the listening proficiency?” if a learner holds beliefs such as “I should pay attention to every word and understand every detail in the text,” or “I have to translate the target language to my native one in order to understand the text,” as addressed above, the learner may be less likely to acquire the language. This shows the importance of an “awareness and consciousness-raising” stage in strategy training. In other words, the value and power of strategies needs to be made explicit to learners.
The second issue to look at is, “Does the learner have an affective barrier against listening proficiency?” The findings here indicate that negative affective influences, such as anxiety, distress, frustration, resistance, and so forth, might distract learners from listening. This kind of psychological barrier interacts with learners’ motivation and attitudes toward learning.
The third question that instructors need to ask is, “Have the listening materials and the learner’s English proficiency been taken into account?” Learners were more likely to practice listening with texts that did not present too much difficulty in terms of vocabulary, grammar, topics, spoken features, or length of sentences or texts. Instructors have to be cautious about the selected material’s being appropriate to the learner’s language level. Although the value of authentic materials for learning listening skill is emphasized by many scholars (e.g., Mendelsohn, 1995), its use poses a practical challenge to instructors who have to choose suitable segments from a great amount of unorganized “real” texts. In this regard, determining the level of the task could be an alternative to determining the level of the material.