The research is based on Polish translations of Shakespearean plays. The results Indicate the interpretative translation – orchestration – which serves double purpose as it not only displays culture and language of the old, but also meets the demands put on the modern literature. Conclusion: it exemplifies how the power of time and cultural distances distorts the perception of the original. Key words:, orchestration, recharging reflex, polyester, transfer, Translation Studies. 1 .
Introduction Orchestral or archaic stabilization Is an artistic means employed In literary texts belonging to national literature. It involves introducing archaisms into a text – archaisms being elements that genetically belong to previous stages of the language development. Therefore, archaisms are exponents of orchestration that are related to the present linguistic norm and current transformations of the linguistic custom. Additionally, exponents of orchestrations remain closely connected with the forms orchestral assumes and the functions It performs In a given text. Dubbed 1991, AAA, Bibb) In this article, exponents of orchestrations are understood rather broadly, that is as all linguistic elements differentiating artistic texts from texts Ritter in standard contemporary Polish, and intentionally serving as archaisms (Dubious, 1991:31). Archaisms can be divided into two basic groups: proper and functional. Proper archaisms can be further separated into subgroups of real and intentional 1 . Real archaisms are defined as linguistic and stylistic exponents that archaize a text on three levels: phonetic, grammatical and semantic.
On the phonetic level there are graphical and phonetic archaisms, while grammatical archaisms comprise inflectional, syntactical and derivation exponents. Archaisms on the mantic level can be classified as lexical (word, signification, subjective, stylistic) or pharmacological (expressions, statements, phrases). In the case of proper archaism, authors use authentic historical material. 1 Dulls In Nils KICK Rectangular w xx-welcomed peepholes Powell moneylender o Correspondence takes this division a step further.
This article uses a more general version of this classification, which is more appropriate for the bilingual environment. Therefore, the division into Polish and foreign archaisms was omitted. Intentional archaisms are created by using historical material taken from periods receding the one described in the text, or by inventing neologisms. Following the former method creates monarchism, and the latter – sadomasochism. The second major group of stabilization archaisms are functional exponents.
Functional orchestration consists in embedding a literary text with linguistic elements that are different from the standard language (genetically, stylistically, territorially), but are chronologically identical. There are several types of functional archaisms: dialectic’s, regionalisms, folklorists, rigorists, colloquialisms, aestheticism (Dubious, 1991:29). This article also includes an analysis of the manner of orchestration, that is the ratio of quantitative and qualitative relations between orchestration exponents and stylistic patterns.
Such an analysis allows for differentiating between reconstructive, selective, substitutive and deformation orchestration. (Dubious, 1991:33-35) 2. Aim of study Translating an old text is always influenced by a linguistic and cultural filter. In the process of translation, a text is being sifted by an abstract sieve of the filter. Because of this filtration the original text cannot be identical with its translation. A linguistic filter stems from grammatical and semantic differences between two languages, hampering the possibility of word-for-word translation even in the case of similar languages.
Although related languages share analogous constructions and lexemes, they have neither semantic nor syntactic sameness, so there is no possibility of complete identicalness (synonymy) in quantitative and qualitative translation, even if some translation units have corresponding syntactic and semantic range. 3. Materials and methods Burgundies of Pisa in his Introduction to the translation of the SST. John’s commentary to the Gospel of SST. John says that for the sake of holiness of Latin, the language of our Lord, I decided to translate word for word (Burgundies of Pisa 2006: 161).
However, later he says that a literal translation is not always possible: when there was no appropriate word, I filled the gap with two or three additional phrases, and idioms based on barbarisms, metastases, figures or tropes were rendered in more appropriate and simpler manner (Burgundies of Pisa 2006: 161). There is also a problem with insufficiency of the language which is incapable to clearly present all the given facts (Wittgenstein). According to this statement, there are several relationships, including linguistic ones, between an original text and its translation that can be referred to as a sort of a game.
Although individual games may be equivalent, they are never identical (Wittgenstein 2006: 58-5, 73, 74). Ludwig Wittgenstein claimed that: If we claim that two phrases are equal, it means that they are mutually replaceable. However, these two phrases themselves should prove such relation feasible. (Wittgenstein 2006: 73). In the case of old texts, the problem becomes even more complicated. Apart from the source engage – target language relationship, one has to take into account older variations AT tense languages.
Leonard Bruno Sal a Tanat In ten process AT translation ten Orlando text is being placed in a different context, so the feat is to introduce a text into the target culture without diminishing its artistic value. In order to translate a foreign language text, one has to interpret it, which demands thorough knowledge of the source culture. Therefore, a translator who wants to convey the author’s ideas in a correct manner has to be an exegete willing to explore the text, its language and session in the historical context (Bruin 2006: 162-211).
These 2 views were later assumed and developed by the school of manipulation represented, inter alai, by l. Even-Sahara 2. No translator living today has linguistic competence in Old Polish or Old English. They may have only some knowledge of these languages which allows them to use orchestration – in foreign language didactics it is called passive knowledge of a dead language or dead language variant. However, linguistic competence should be defined as capability for using a given language in interactions, including the ability to partially reconstruct a text within such a engage system.
The opinion that translations belong to the national literary heritage dates back to the medieval times. Tamari Even-Sahara claims that instead of fathoming the nature of equivalence, we should focus our attention on a target text as a subject of a target polyester which is governed by its own principles. Obviously, this is a target-oriented approach (translation being the target), directly related to works of Gideon Tours, who described in detail the nature of translated texts, e. G. Characteristics distinguishing them from other texts originating in a given polyester.
Moreover, both of these scholars object to treating translations as phenomena excluded from a given target polyester. They are understood rather as examples of general translating procedures that must be determined by this polyester. It is known that translation is not created by selecting from ready-made linguistic means and possibilities, but rather shaped by systemic limitation of linguistic and discursive means employed. A translator chooses historical linguistic elements and uses exponents of a given polyester to achieve desired stabilization.
There is a possibility of a deep stabilization, or to be precise, a reconstruction in a dead engage variant, yet it is reserved for translators with vast historical and linguistic knowledge, and remarkable translating skills. However, this method is not appropriate because of the text’s audience. If there is linguistic and cultural barrier between the author and the audience, and they are additionally divided by 400 years, the translate should be adjusted to the cultural and linguistic competence of the latter so as to meet the communicative criteria.
It is important to remember that currently even the original version of the text has to be adapted to the knowledge and skills of contemporary native speakers of the given language. Moreover, it is often enriched with numerous comments and footnotes prepared by its editors for the sake of more comprehensible reading. George Steiner believes that old texts should not be translated to any modern version of a target language. Some linguistic characteristics, I. E. Archaic effects, need to appear in the translation unless one wants to read a greatly impoverished rendering of the original.
This phenomena is called archangels Renee. I nee quest Arles, to want extent one snouts pursue ten orchestration of the text? A translator should choose some linguistic measures specific or a given period, but their number has to be limited in order not to lose comprehensibility. For sure, one has to retain the unique lexis of the period, like weapon or clothing names, as well as the words that appear in the modern language as archaisms. (Steiner 1975) 4. Results Steiner’s recharging reflex in fact comprises stylistic means described as orchestration in Polish linguistic tradition.
These means demand more detailed analysis, which can be performed on excerpts from William Shakespearean “Hamlet” and “Macbeth”. S. Even-Sahara 1. , (AAA). The position of translated literature within the literary electrolytes. Poetics Totally 1:1, s. 45-51 or Factors and Dependencies in Culture: A Revised Outline for Polyester Culture Research. Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 1997/24, 1, s. 15-34. 3 As already said, orchestration may assume reconstructive, selective, substitutive or deformation nature. Reconstruction is hardly ever chosen as a technique of an old text translation.
Translation, according to the law of polyester, becomes part of national literary masterpieces inventory, and as part of such a system it has to fulfill the communicativeness criterion. A translator should adjust their work to the instituting competence of their target reader. It should by no means result in drastic simplification or impoverishment of the translate, but rather adaptation of a source text to historical and cultural reality of a given community, that is introducing it into the current polyester of this culture.
In the case of old texts, reconstruction is very difficult, and thus rarely used, as only limited number of translators have adequate linguistic competence in source and target languages to perform such reconstructed translation. This results in popularity of selective and substitutive translation which enables for partial or quasi-reconstruction of an original text in the target language. One should remember that translating an old text is not a linear, but rather gradual process.
In the first phase a translator translates the text into their contemporary language and cultural patterns, and only then performs orchestration in order to render the nature and linguistic uniqueness of the period of its creation. Moreover, the older the translation, the closer it is to the language and cultural background of the original text’s period. Consequently, the accuracy of the translation is inversely reapportion to the distance in time between the author and the translator. This distance also influences the relations between the translator and the target reader.
The reader is under a certain illusion, as they believe the 19th century translations to be archaisms, whereas the translator simply rendered the text in the then contemporary Polish. This illusion of orchestration seems to be impenetrable for the reader, but it is a somewhat different in the case of deep stabilization. A partially reconstructed translation is either incomprehensible to the reader, or it appears playfully artificial . Adam Pole G’s translation AT ten rumors Hamlet monologue (act Ill, scene l) may serve as an excellent example here Body lobo nine body – to CIA Jest demand !
Witty impiously nobilities sufferer Tyranny, Suez alkaline Fortuning, Inn Bach prince cilia pretty Hebrew wool, Suffers kielbasa ? Sneezer-lie ? Lie dreamt ? Orangeroot, babyish Skipjack finally Sorcerer yecch, wheeziest wassaileda, Eked macabre social ? O Krebs none as nine patience Bib Kyoto immanent ? To be, or not to be: that is the question: Whether ‘its nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing end them?
To die: to sleep; No more; and by a sleep to say we end The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to, ‘its a consummation Devoutly to be wished. To die, to sleep; The author of this translation employed lexical, inflectional and syntactic archaisms from the Old Polish, which were in fact much older than their English source segments, and connected them with linguistic elements from more contemporary Polish. These Old Polish archaism include e. G. Auxiliary word Bach, an element of complex conditional (e. G. Obi Bach), particles -2/e, -lie (sneezer-lie, cilia), conjunctions alai, babyish, witty and pronoun eked. Adam Polka used also lexical archaisms (nobility’s, kielbasa). These are often intentional archaisms, neologisms derived from Latin or even English base (POI. Suffuses – Eng. Suffer) or Latin borrowings, e. G. demand, suffers, patience, finally, immanent. 3 3 S. B. Linden’s dictionary provides definitions for none of these words. CB. Slowing Kayak apologies,De. S. B. Linden, Warsaw 1812. 4 Another noteworthy thing is a distorted form of the verb byte – that is body, as well as monarchism, e. G. yecch, wassaileda.
Although the translator fitted his orientation with orchestration reflexes, his text turned out as a pastiche which feels unnatural and incomprehensible for the contemporary reader. Polka’s translation may be perceived as a success only if he aimed at ridiculing the Hamlet’s monologue. Polka’s translation perfectly exemplifies how the power of time and cultural distances distorts the perception of the original. The vast distance between the translator and the text comes from experience (literary burden) and the functions performed by the modern literature – in this case, unmasking the role of classic works in contemporary culture.
Therefore, Polka’s translation locates itself in the centre of the polyester and fulfils the functions of modern literature. Idioms pose another problem as they rarely have their counterparts in the target language and are not prone to orchestration. Interesting instances of idiom translation come from attempts to translate the sentence: False face must hide what the false heart doth know. Andre Edward Kantian and J¶kef Passbook’s, recognized 19 the century translators, translate this sentence, respectively, as: Boo Aztar? scarce – Godard tarry niece postwar and Falls scarce I falls lick mucus sit spools.
In English this phrase has a status of a saying. In Polish we can find two dynamic equivalents of this saying in proverbs: Popcorn amyl Ana Dora mina 00 size grey. I nee translators could select one AT these idiomatic variants, but neither of them chose to use dynamic translation, although both of them availed themselves of complex adaptation means in other parts of the text. The question arises whether Kantian and Passbook’s did not recognize the saying or they intentionally decided to use the literal translation. Does it mean that the idiomatic relation was cancelled?
Both Kantian and Passbook’s implemented the idea of giving the Polish equivalent of the phrase the status of a saying, although in fact this phrase does not constitute one of such. The effect of proverb was achieved by introducing repetition between both parts of the phrase: Kantian repeats the word Godard, and Passbook’s – lexeme falls. It is not hard to notice that Passbook’s translation bears formal similarity to the original, while Kantian uses adaptation. Simian’s decision to translate the lexeme false as Godard was probably inspired by the meaning of the Polish word, which is close to the mantic core of the lexeme false.
Samuel Bogus Linden in his Slowing Kayak apologies defines Godard as “standardized, escadrille videodisc, pods?p”. Simian’s decision appears to be even more Justified because of the definition given by this dictionary for the adjective straddling: “quadratics, couscous’s, pods?pony, nominally, Oakwood. ” Therefore, from the diachronic perspective (as the meaning of Godard in the 1st half Oh the 19th century has to determined) Simian’s decision can be treated as a rationally Justified modification. Both translations are comprehensible or contemporary readers and bear no signs of orchestration.
Mace] Chocoholics assumed different approach to this issue and translated the discussed phrase as Niece falls lick: seismic pinkie I Godwin,// W flawlessly curse jersey CCNY strategist. The translated phrase is very rhythmic which makes it feel archaic. The above examples offer new possibilities to translators of old texts. Interpretative approach to the culturally and linguistically distant original Justifies and allows for both free and direct translation, as it is possible to change functions of the translated text in the argue polyester while using linguistic means from the past centuries.