a) Treatment for prostate cancer that hasn’t spread This is the kind of cancer that is contained in the prostate gland, the localized prostate cancer. Patients in this category are classified according to the speed in which the cancer grows, that is, quickly, slowly or if it will spread at all. 1) Low risk localized prostate cancer This type is unlikely to develop for many years. Patients with this type are given an active monitoring, so that the doctor will observe the cancer for some time to see if it will grow. In some cases, this type is so slow that it doesn’t show any symptoms.

The doctors also should monitor the cancer first to avoid treatments and their side effects. Radio therapy and surgery to remove the cancer are the treatments that are offered to the patient incase the cancer spreads during the observation period. Normally, surgery to remove the cancer is done to young people, since the risk of the cancer spreading is higher, while in older men, radiotherapy to the prostate is preferred. High frequency ultra sound therapy and cryotherapy are some of the treatments that may also be tried. 2) Intermediate risk localized prostate cancer

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This cancer spreads or grows within a few years. The doctor will perform surgery on the patient to remove the prostate gland, or external radiotherapy to the patient. The two treatments work equally well, but the benefits, the risks and the side effects of the treatments are very different. Active monitoring and radio therapy are other forms of treatment that may be administered to the patient. 3) High risk localized prostate cancer This also spreads within a few years after diagnosis. Therefore, surgery to remove the tumor will be a good option for the treatment.

External radiotherapy to the tumor is also an option. Internal radio therapy can not be used because in this type of cancer, the cancerous cells may have already spread to other areas away from the prostate gland, and the therapy may not reach all the cells. Active monitoring is an option for the men who are not so fit to undergo radiotherapy or surgery. If the cancer has spread outside the prostate gland, surgery and external radio therapy are combined with hormone therapy to treat the cancer. b) Treatment for prostate cancer that comes back After undergoing treatment, prostate cancer may come back.

Doctors respond to such cases with a hormone therapy, if the patient shows the symptoms. If the patient underwent surgery during the first treatment, the doctors will recommend external radio therapy to the prostate. High frequency ultra sound therapy and cryotherapy are not so effective at this stage but they can also be used. c) Treating the prostate cancer that has spread Such a cancer has no cure. However, lowering the level of the testosterone in the body may control the cancer. This can be done through the hormone therapy. The hormones can be administered in form of tablets, or monthly injections.

The testosterone levels can also be reduced by the removal of the testicles, (castration or orchidectomy). This is effective in that it has been known to control the cancer in many men for a few years. If the first treatment was a success, the doctors can treat the patient with chemotherapy or steroids, to control the cancer for some time. If the prostate cancer has spread to the bones and causes pain, the doctor may perform radio therapy to reduce the pain in the bones. (Wilkes L 2004, pgs143 to 151) Implications of the cancer Many men that have been diagnosed with the cancer say that they prefer to under go the treatment with their wives.

Te professionals in the treatment of the cancer need to discuss effective methods of treating the cancer, because it affects the sex life of the couples. There should also be the screening the patients for depression, because it has been known to cause depression in to the couples. Summary Prostate cancer is common among many men. It is therefore the responsibility of the men to ensure that they are checked against prostate cancer. Furthermore, they should ensure that they avoid eating the kinds of foods that may increase the risk of prostrate cancer.

Those who have been diagnosed should take the doctor’s prescription. The medication given should be followed strictly; otherwise serious health complications and even death will follow. References 1) Wilkes L, Cioffi J, Ho S, 2004, Health education, Prostate cancer: men’s health and their prostate, VOLUME 104, ISSUE 3 , 143 to 151 2) Pathophysiology is the Key to Prostate Cancer’s Treatment 09/22/2007 3) Bostwick D G, 2004, Grading prostate cancer. volume102 pages 0-56 4) Prostate-specific antigen, 2004, Current role in diagnostic pathology of prostate cancer, 102 vol (4 Supply): pages 0-7

5) Godoy G, Sankin A, et al. 2009, Can contemporary transrectal prostate biopsy accurately select candidates for hemi-ablative focal Therapy of prostate cancer? 6) Misogynist IC, Skolarikos A, Deliveliotis C, 2009, Somatostatin analog lanreotide in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), volume 10(3) pages 493-501. 7) Thomadaki H, Mavridis K, Talieri M, et al. 2009,Treatment of PC3 prostate cancer cells with mitoxantrone, etoposide, doxorubicin and carboplatin induces distinct alterations in the expression of kallikreins 5 and 11, volume 101(2): pages 373-80.