Assignment 023 Understand Child and Young Person Development Task A A1 Table 1: Physical Development Age Range| Explain the sequence and rate of development | 0-3 months | Babies at birth have learnt to use their reflexes e. g. grasp reflex where a babies puts their fingers round object that has touch the palm of their hand.
They are born loads of different reflexes that they do without thinking. At one month babies are less curled up and also start to use the standing and walking reflex where someone holds them up, and they usually make step movements. This can be different for every baby though. | 3-6 months | At this age they have learnt to lift and turn their heads, some with support are able to set up and are able to roll over from their backs to their fronts but this could be different for example an baby might be able to lift both their hands and feet in the air but not yet learnt to roll over. 6-9 months| Their physical development has grown stronger and a lot more noticeable. They may be starting to crawl and be able to sit up on their own, which encourages them to play as they have learnt to handle toys and are becoming more skilful at touching things which also affects their feed as their able to pick foods up and feed themselves. | 9-12 months| Babies are normally at the verge of walking at this age as they may have learnt to stand up while holding on to furniture to balance themselves and some may be walking by holding on to things.
Normally their eyesight as this age has developed to be the same as an adult making them faster, this is sometimes the age you will start to see if a child needs additional support. | 1-2 years| Normally by this age they should of master walking and are moving around much quicker enjoying having more freedom, also climbing and running starts to happen. They are starting to play with sit and ride toys using their legs to push themselves. | 2-4 years | Physical development has increased loads by now and means they will go to extremes to get an object that they would like and are able to move objects around to get things for example chairs.
They would also have learnt how to walk up the stairs. At the age of 4 they have become very skill full with their hands and are able to use scissors and other equipment for activities. | 4-7 years | At this age physical are less rapid. They have learnt to have more control of their legs and feet which means they are able to control a ball. They have increased fine manipulative movements. | 7-12 years | They have become more quickly confidant and accurately when using skills which mean more things have become more an easier task for them such as cutting out with scissors.
At 9-11 years they have greater coordination and speed when using both fine and large movement. | 12-19 years | At this age they have physically use every skill they would learn. The main changes are now in their body. By the age of 15-16 girls would have finished becoming women and most boys’ puberty with start at 14 and would likely to last 3 years they casually have poor spatial a where-ness as a result of bodies shape quickly. | Shauni Morgan Shauni Morgan Table 2: Intellectual and Cognitive development
Age Range | Explain the sequence and rate of development | 0-3 months | Babies are able to recognize their mother’s voice, but this could be different for a premature baby. Babies are able to respond to familiar voices such as they stop crying. At 1 month babies start to look more around them and notice things around them what they haven’t before such as mobiles. | 3-6 months| Babies learn a lot from this age, they picking things up every day. Babies are starting to focus and explore objects with they month as well as they fingers.
Babies start to show they understand some of what has been said to them and try to communicate back with a smile or a squeal. | Shauni Morgan Shauni Morgan 6-9 months | Babies are most likely to understand that people and objects do not disappear when they are not out of sight but continue to exist, so this mean they start to become more upset when a familiar carer leaves the room. As they now understand they career is around and wants to be with them although this is not the same for every baby. | 9-12 months| Babies now want to take part in things they see happening around them and what turn they interest.
They able to recognise the routes of the day becoming tired and upset when they now it is nap time or when the bath water is going. | 1-2 years| At this ages some toddlers when some independence, they are starting to develop to be they own individuals. Which means they are able to have a mind of they own also Which mean they can be restless and they moods changes quickly. They are becoming attracted to adults not just they parents and enjoy playing more things such as pretend play. | 2-4 years| They make a huge leap at this age, they are bale to understand more what going on around them and understand the needs of others.
They learn to look forward to going to tings such as nursery and play school. | 4-7 years| Children have started education, which can be transition period for some children as some could have less concentration and not be interesting to read and write but those who are this can prove really existing. They also begin to learn how to count and do simple calculations | 7-12 years| Children start to show that they can think and reason as they start to solve simple problems and enjoy working them out for themselves. They response well when giving clear explanations for rules and when they behave is acknowledge and praises.
Reading and writing become easier although this can be variations in the speed at which children learn which is different for every child. | 12-19 years | At this ages children start at secondary school, so some will have learnt the same as adults e. g. , using computers. At the age of 16 they need to decide to leave education or to get a job. This is a significant stage in their lives as they will be leaving a familiar environment and must adapt to new codes, relationships and expectations. | Table 3: Communication Development
Age Range | Explain the sequence and rate of development | 0-3 months | At this age babies have hardly any communication skills as they have not learnt them yet. They show it though crying such as when they are hungry and tired parents may understand their different cries. Babies start to make noises when contacted and also learn to smile when they see a smiling face. | 3-6 months| This age varies for different babies and is not always the same. Babies start to show that they understand a little bit of what is being said to them and try to communicate back, for example when you say milk they get excited and squeak.
They also use they bodies to communicate this could be such as lifting their arms up to show adults that they want to be picked up. | 6-9 months| Babies have started babbling and longer strings of sounds are put together. Babies are able to understand who they enjoy being with and often cry when left with a stranger and not with their careers. | 9-12 months| At this age long strings of babbling are still the way babies communicate but this is where they begin they first words this is notice by their main careers. 1-2 years| They are still learning the communication skills but most children would have learnt to use several words and understand some of what is being said to them. They start to have temper tantrums to show an adult how they are feeling; they also learn other ways to communicate by smiling and laughing when they are happy. | 2-4 years| They language is really starting to develop and may now be able to put two words together to express themselves. Others learn how to use sentences but this is different for every child. At age 3, children may be able to tell you how they are feeling, so the temper tantrums begin to decrease.
Speech has also become easy to understand, they will be the odd mistake and pronunciation but mostly they would of mastered speaking and enjoy talking and asking questions. | 4-7 years| Children are gaining confidence in their communication and enjoy talking to others and making jokes, for example, They are also beginning to sing songs when they hear the music and can sometimes remember the words sung. | 7-12 years| They enjoy chatting now and have mastered how to use their language to show how they feel, so verbal arguments start to happen with friends and main careers.
They are starting to write and act stories using their imagination. They are also starting to learn how to do grammar. | 12-16 years| By this age children will have mastered reading and writing which will develop their confidant, which means some children are able to read out loud to a group of people. | Table 4: Social, emotional & Behavioural Development. Age Range| Explain the sequence and rate of development| 0-3 months| Babies beginning to have close context with their primary carer mostly when feeding. Babies are learning to stop cry when they hear a soothing voice of their main carer.
You also start to see a fleeting smile when a baby is asleep. | 3-6 months| Babies are beginning to enjoy playing and show it through smiling and squealing with delight when their primary carer is around them. | 6-9 months| Babies have learnt that people don’t disappear when out of sight so can get upset when their main carer leaves the room and cannot be seen. They will protest as now they know they’re still around them are desperate to be with them and when they are around they try to stay near them most of the time but this is different for every child. At this age they don’t understand emotions. 9-12 months| They start to understand things more about what is going on around them and can till who strangers are to them and who is familiar to them, so they became anxiety if strangers approach them or try to handle them. | 1-2 years | They start to show interest in other children but are often fascinated by them as some may not fully understand sharing just yet. At this age they enjoy playing with adults but do not like to share the attraction sometimes. They also show signs of temper at this age as they cry and protest if they don’t get what they want. 2-4 years | At this age they begin to play more with other children even if they just play alongside them. They also start to copy actions from other children and adults. Children start to understand sharing more and enjoying playing with other children but some children can be different and some may not have enough confident to start playing with others. They start to develop friends, enjoy spending time with them and became excited to see them. | 4-7 years| Children learn a lot in these years and this is where you can start to see children individual needs.
Most children at this age start responding well to adults praises and learning what they are doing is right. When they start school friends became very important to them, as they start to develop friendship preferences. | 7-12 years | At this age there are quite settle and don’t have many changes. Girls well have their first signs of puberty at the age of nine but is mostly different for every girl. They also show more enthusiasm when they are given more responsible and there confident grows in many activities such as reading, writing and maths. 12-16 years| This age is where the children show signs of wanted to grow up and explore boundaries for example question rules at home. They also have the pressure of changing school and the thought of getting used to a new school. Also as the children bodies start to get ready for adulthood it can be very upsetting for some of them because of all the changes. | 16-19 years | At this age teenagers find their friends to be very important in their lives and find many pressures to come from them, as some can have an experience with bullying. This can have detrimental effect of their self-esteem.
Also they can get pushed in to bad behaviour such as smoking and misuse of substances. | Table 5: Moral Development Age Range | Explain the sequence and rate of development| 0-12 Months| In the first few months babies don’t have the understanding of moral developments. Showing by smiling, joy laughing while being fed by being comfortable or safe. | 1-2 years| No understanding between right and wrong understanding the words yes or no. | 2-4 years| Can following simply rules most of the time. Children mainly do things for adult’s approval. | 4-7 years| They start to show interest in use rules and are keen to understand them.
They normally have understood on when they know if them doing something wrong. | 7-12 years| Children are able to start to point out when rules are being broken. They also have awareness of consequences of behaviour. | 12-16 years| They develop an understanding for need for rules in society. | 16-19 years| They have a fall understanding about right or wrong and consequences of actions. They develop an interest in moral issues. | Understand child & young person development Task A – A2 Question 1). The difference between ‘sequence’ of development and ‘rate’ of development is the aspects of development fellow a definite sequence.
For example, babies have to be able to lift their head before they can sit. The sequence of development is typical in all children. The rate of development is where individual children can be different in the rate and speed they develop and they can have different rates of development in different areas. For example, when a 1 year old might not be walking but can say a few words. Question 2). It is important to know the differences between rate and sequence as knowing the sequence helps you plan effectively for them. Where the rate is essential to check if the rate of development is atypical and need further investigation.
Task B B1) Personal factors | Health status | Health can affect the child by them not feeling like to play with could affect their learning as children learn though play. | Disability | A child in a wheel could find it hard to get around a setting which could limit what they are able to do. | Sensory impairment| A child born without sight might not have as many opportunities to be physically active which could not help his/her physically development. | Learning difficulties | It could mean that a child who has specific difficulties may be disadvantages in other areas of development.
Sometimes disadvantage may not be inevitable if the child is properly supported. | External Factors| Poverty and deprivation | A child’s diet could be affected if families on low incomes may but cheaper foods which have high levels of salt, fat and sugar. Which means it will affect the child’s growth, behaviour and development | Family environment/background | Stress in the family could affect a child. For example on parent leaves. A child may become anxious or may no longer be motivated to work at school. Personal choices| One choice could be what they what to eat and if they choose too which can affect their physical development & maybe they cognitive. | Looked after/care status| A child needs to have a strong and enduring attachment with a main carer makes a different in children’s endemic development and social and emotion development and if a child does not have this it could affect them in that way. | Education | Some children may find school scary and alienating which lowers their self-esteem, which means why cannot benefit from all the opportunities given. | B2)
Cognitive – They are three different approaches to cognitive development there’s constructions, behaviourist and social learning. The most famous theorist for cognitive development is Jean Piaget who was a constructivist theorist which he thought children learn through their own experiences. We link this to practice by attempting to provide more hands-on and relevant task for young people. He works often thought to have started child-centred teaching. Psychoanalytical – This is related to social and emotional developments. This theory believes personality and actions are determined by the unconscious mind, which develops in childhood.
We use this in practice by using lack of criticism from others for mistakes, which leads the child to a confident and autonomous individual. Humanist – This theory is about people have certain fundamental needs, which have to meet before a child can begin to fulfil their potential we use this in our practice by creating a good environment for the children to be in as well as forming strong relationships with the children. Social Learning – This is another behaviourist approach. Social learning theorist suggests that children and young people also learn by observing others.
One of features of observational learning is its spontaneous, children will naturally learn by copy not be being shown or taught. It used in practice at setting by encouraging staff to act as good role models. Operant Conditioning – This theory is that learning is based on the types of consequence or reinforcement that fellows an initial behaviour. B. F Skinner is recognised as a key figure in this theory he suggest most humans learn through exploring the environment and then drawing conclusion based on the consequence of their behaviour. We use this in practice to support children’s positive behaviour.
For example, give children treats, certificates or other rewards. Behaviourist – These theories look at the way in which children repeat actions in response to stimuli and reinforcements. The conditioning is often used by behaviourist it means that you learn to act in a certain way because of past experiences. Although there theorists are not part of our practice they are useful to know. Social Pedagogy – This is known as the holistic way and thoughtful way of working. The aim is to find way of working with children which will improve their life changes and social changes. Task C
Welcome to our nursery. We hope you have a successful career here. Here is some information to help you while at our nursery. We use two assessment methods to monitor young people development, these are: * Observations, some observations require the observer not to interact with the children where others you act as a particle part. This helps towards out planning. * They are also assessment framework which is used in education where they are specific frameworks against which children development is measured. Good example of this is the early year’s foundation stage profile.
You will also find that every child is different which means there development can sometimes not follow the expected pattern. Here are some examples why this might happen: * Disability may stop a child from developing in one or more areas. Early support could minimise the effect of the disability. * Communication skills can have a huge impact on many areas of development. Communication is linked to literacy skills, so children with low levels of communication skills could find it hard to read or write. * Physical reasons could affect their developmental pattern which is affected by their genetic code.
This means they are slow to develop in many areas for no specific reason. While at this setting, you may find children with disability, one explanation how it affects their development is that some disability can affect their overall development as aspects of development are interlinked. For example, their disability might affect their language, which could result in decrease in their behaviour. Three examples of different types of intervention that could promote positive outcomes, where development is not following the expected pattern are: * A speech and language therapist * Physiotherapist Serco Task E) Emotional:| Changes to family structure one effect on young person development is there could become withdraw, not wanting to take part in activities. This could affect the child’s communication and speech. | The benefit of a positive relationship during this period of transition, having key person they will be able to see the change in the child and be able to give support early on. | Physical:| One effect on a young person development is when a child is going through puberty they might not like all the changes maybe leading them to depression which could affect their social life. The benefit of a positive relationship during this period of transition, it’s good to have someone to talk to about this transition to make it not as hard by having someone to explain to you what’s going on and to check everything’s ok. | Physiological: | Moving home change of location could affect their behaviour leading them to use uncooperative behaviour causing problems at home and school, which could be affect their emotional development. | The benefit of a positive relationship during this period of transition.
It could make transition easier if they are moving with people they know and can talk about how they feel. | Intellectual: | Illness of family member one effect on young person development could lead to lack of concentration, which could lead to affecting education, making them decrease in development. | The benefit of a positive relationship during this period of transition, A person could notice that you are struggling and offer additional support. |