UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABADDEPARTEMENT OF ZOOLOGY, WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES(Synopsis for M.Phil)TITLE: Effect ofmicro mineral supplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth performance ofLabeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala under semi intensive culture systemName of Student Muhammad SaleemSarwarRegd. No 2013-ag-6928ABSTRACTThestudies will be conducted to investigate the effect of micro mineralsupplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of two majorcarps Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala under semi intensiveculture system mainly act on metabolism and affect the feed intake of fish.Fishwill be cultivated in pond for 56 days and the influence of supplemented dietbased on micro minerals will be noted on weekly basis and their effect ongrowth and body composition will be analyzed.
Feedintake will also be observed throughout experiment. At the end of study, thefish will be weighted for calculation of weight gain (WG), specific growth rate(SGR) and feeding efficiency (FE). The data collected will be analyzedusing analysis ofvariance (ANOVA).
Multiple Range Test will be used tocomparethe mean differences, and the level of significance will be reported at p<0.05. UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABADDEPARTEMENT OF ZOOLOGY, WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES(Synopsis for M.Phil)TITLE: Effect ofmicro mineral supplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth performanceof Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala under semi intensiveculture system. a) Date of admission : 04-09-2016b) Date of initiation : After approvalc) Probable duration : 6 monthsd) PERSONNEL:e) Name : Muhammad SaleemSarwarf) Regd. No. : 2013-ag-6928g) Supervisor : Dr. Khalid Abbash) SUPPERVISORYCOMMITTEE: i.
Dr. Khalid Abbas : (Supervisor) ii. Dr. Sajid Abdullah : (Member) iii. Dr. Anjum Zia : (Member) INTRODUCTION Thegrowth performance and nutrient digestibility of fish in intensive and semi-intensive culture system depends on various factors particularly feedingmanagements. Fish growth at different phases is largely overseen by the kind ofnutrients, feeding frequency, feed consumption and its capacity to captivatethe nutrients.
One problem challenging by fish culturists is to obtainstability between speedy fish growth and optimal use of the provided diet.Among these, feeding frequency is a significant aspect for the survival andgrowth of fish at the initial stage (Hung et al., 2001; Dwyer et al.,2002). Aquacultureis the fastest rising food area in recent decades.
In many emergent countries,pond-based or open water broad, enhanced, extensive and semi-intensivepractices using polyculture and monoculture farming skills have been broadlyaccepted. Relatively, the higher volume of freshwater and marine predatoryfinfish in advanced countries is manufactured by intensive culturing systemsusing high-cost feed formulations in the form of “nutritionally perfectbalanced feeds”. In most of evolving countries like Asia and Africa, worldwideaquaculture production can be accomplished through the progression ofsemi-intensive, small scale pond farming. Hence, diet and feeding approacheswill play a massive role in maintaining the aquaculture growth. Therefore,there is a need for sustainable aquaculture managements should addressprovision of ideas based on native environments, and balance increasingproductivity with social and environmental budgets (Hasan, 2001). Thereare several experiments performed onfeeding trial with formulated diets based on micro mineral supplementationusing Indian major carp rohu, Labeorohita and Cirrihinusmrigala which isamong the most widespread and commercially cultivated fish types in Pakistan.However many experiments have been performed about feeding frequency of thisclass are very insufficient (Gokceket al.
, 2008). Therefore thisexperiment has been aimed to study the growth performance and nutrientdigestibility of Indian major carp rohu, Labeorohita and Cirrihinusmrigala fed on artificialmicro mineral supplemented diet (45 % crude protein) at altered feedingfrequencies. Therefore, it is essential to regulate the feeding frequency andfeeding level for the desired species in aquaculture for best production. Whenfish are nourished with at ideal feeding frequency, growth and feed conversionratio are anticipated to increase because controls their feed consumption relative to their energy requirement (Kaushikand Meadale, 1994) and their feeding measures (Boujard and Leatherland, 1992;Dada et al. (2002). Theconcept of aquaculture in Pakistan is semi-intensive in nature and isestablished on the bases of polyculture of three major carps viz.
rohu (Labeorohita),thaila (Catlacatla), mori (Cirrhinusmrigala) including twoChinese carps viz. grass carp (Ctenopharyngodonidella) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthysmolitix).Concept of polyculture is also common in India and proved to be quitesuccessful and fish production is very tall than monoculture system(Chakrabarti, 1998; Azimet al., 2001; Dhawan and Kaur, 2002a and b;Hossainet al., 2003; Keshavanathet al., 2006; Sahuet al.,2007).
Mineralshave an important role in fish physiological processes. Iron is one of them,contents of iron required in low concentration as compared to mammals (Van Dijket al., 2012). Intestinal mucosa is the site that absorbs the iron. Thedeficiency of iron reported as anemia in brook trout (Kawatsu, 2010) yellowtail(Ikeda et al.
, 1973a), red sea bream (Sakamoto and Yone, 1978a) and carp(Sakamoto and Yone, (1978b).Copperis also necessary minerals for the enzymatic activities of fish like cytochromeoxidase, superoxide dismutase, lysyl oxidase, dopamine hydroxylase and tyrosinase.According to Syed and Coombs (2014) there are many similarities of the copperfunctioning between fish and mammals. In fish maximum concentration of copperlocated in heart, brain and in liver. REVIEWOF LITERATURE Khanet al. (2012) evaluated the response of (CirrhinusmrigalaandLabeorohita) under semi intensive system for three months.
Organic andinorganic supplements were provided in pond where the fishes were grown. Foodsupplements having 35% protein provided daily in pond at three percent of bodyweight. It was noted that all the fish species gained much weight as comparedto control with this feed. It was also studied that different parameters likefeed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, protein utilization and grossenergy retention efficiency increased in all the fish species as compared tonon-treated fish species. Whereas gross energy retention efficiency in L.
rohitaincreased more than other fishspecies under 35% protein diet.Aamina et al. (2017) performed an experiment to determinethe growth effect of Catlacatla inmetal mixture condition in semi-intensive system. Fingerlings of three monthswere succumbed to sub-lethal proportion of metal and transferred it to pond.Both ponds (control and treated) were treated with nitrogen containingfertilizer for hundred gram of wish weight. It was studied that control fishshowed higher growth rate as compared to stressed fish. Maximum wet weight offish species was reduced in metal mixture condition.
Different conditionfactors (temperature, Ph, total hardness, total dissolved solids andalkalinity) were enhanced in metal mixture than control, whereas feedconversion ratio observed more for control. It was also detected that metalmixture reduced the overall growth of fishes and also caused toxic effects.Dada &Olugbemi(2013) conducted an experiment to determine the effect of different feedadditive on growth, body composition and utilization of nutrients ofClariasgariepinus (African fish).
Commercial feed additive (aqua booster andaqua pro) were mixed with diet at 0.5 g per kilogram and forage to fish for 50days. Fishes feed on commercial feed additive exhibited the maximum growthrate, body composition and utilization as compared to control diet. However themaximum growth rate was observed under aqua pro (commercial additive feed) ascompared to aqua booster.
Protein contents, protein efficiency were observedhigher for aqua pro than aqua booster. The moisture contents were not affectedunder both feed additive. Adhikari et al. (2014) were conducted an experiment with indian carps (Catlacatla(catla),Labeorohita(rohu) and Cirrhinusmrigala) in 12 fish ponds. Each pond contain 0.04 hector water and stockingdensities for the fish carp were 7500, 10000 and 12500 per hector. Fourapplications for each stocking were used. The average weight ofcatla,rohu and mrigal fingerlings were 6.
5 ± 0.5, 5.0 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.4 g, respectively noted. Asmanure, cow dung 14000 kg,Urea 200 kgand phosphate 300 kgper hector were used.
The fishes were also fed with oil cake and rice polish in1:1 ratio. The budget indicated that retrieval of nitrogen reduced from 43 to24% and phosphorus was also decreased from 16 to 9% but their stockingdensities were enhanced. It was also determined that recovery of organic carbonreduced from 28 to 16% but its stocking density increased from 7500 to 12500per hector.Chattopadhyayet al. (2002) studied the effect of micro mineral supplementation on growthperformance of LabeoRohita and CirrhinusMirgala in semi intensiveculture system. The experiment wasdesigned for 90 days in semi intensive culture system with Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala.
The fishes were grown with micro mineral supplemented diet like Co, Cr etc. andtemperature of pond kept at 24 c to 31C. The results showed that applied micromineral supplemented diet has no significant influence on the fishes grown inpond. It was also indicated that all these supplements have no significantlychanged the water quality attributes like Ph, total dissolve oxygen,alkalinity, hardness of water and its biological parameters (phytoplankton andzooplankton population).
The experiment also determined that temperature,growth coefficient, condition factor, weight of individual species and bodycomposition of all the fish species not significantly affected by supplementsused in experiment.Abbaset al. (2014) conducted an experiment to analyze the efficacy of micro mineralsupplemented diet on fish growth when applied individually or in combined formwith supplementary feed. Studies were conducted in clay ponds continued tillfull growth period. Results indicate that organic manure is better thaninorganic supplemented diet and can handle independently nutrient requirementof fish to some extent of their growth period but inorganic diet cannot do italone. These studies further indicate that administration of micro mineralsupplementary feed is essential for maximum output though both organic andinorganic fertilizers provided supplementary diet not only fulfills thenutrient deficiencies but also helps to exploit the maximum potential ofmanures added into pond.Kumaret al. (2017) determined the alternate feeding strategies of optimum nutrientsand reducing feed cost in aquaculture system for semi intensive condition.
Itwas noted that production of fish (feed) provides the half of the aquaculturecost. The further cost can be impassive by reducing the concentration ofexpensive ingredient in feed but it was ensured that these ingredients notcontained the growth and quality of culture stock. Suitable alternate feedingstrategies used to reduce the aquaculture cost. The experiment also indicatedthat low cost feed formulation reduced the pollution load in pond and improvedthe economic status, income for the farmers.Baidya and Murthy et al, was conducted an Eight weeks feeding trial to assessthe influence of nutritional organic selenium (OS) ondevelopment, persistenceand body composition of rohu (Labeorohita). The selenium is supplementedat 0, 1, 2 and 3 g/kg diet. These test intakes were served for 8 weeks in threegroups of rohu, which had primary weight of 1.2 g.
After the supplementation oftest diets, growth and survival of rohu was noted. Fish fed with theinclusionof OS diets had no major changeson growth factors as well as body composition parameters.PROCEDUREIn order todetermine the effect of micro mineral supplementation on nutrient digestibilityand growth concert of two carps L. rohitaand Cirrihinusmrigala, anexperiment will be conducted on Fisheries research arms, Department of Zoology,Wildlife, and Fisheries. Fingerlings will be collected from Faisalabad hatcheryand acclimated to laboratory conditions for seven days in a cemented tank.After acclimation, both carps will be shifted into pond to observe the weightand levels of artificial diet on weekly basis. The effect of micro mineral supplementation ongrowth performance and nutrient digestibility will be determined and feed intake will also be recorded throughout theexperiment.
BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSISThe body compositionof fish will be analyzed by dissection the five fishes from each aquariumliver and viscera weighed to determine hepatosomaticindex (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI), respectively.Variousparameters likemoisture, crude protein, will be determined throughkjeldhalprocess, lipid will be determined through Bligh and Dyer method and ashwill be determined through combustion process.GROWTH PARAMETERFishsampling will be done on weekly basis, to check the growth performance in termsof average weight and total length. The length and weight will be documented onweekly basis to calculate the mean weight and length at the end of the trial.Measurement ofaverage length and weight A suitable measuring scale will be used to determinedthe length of fish. The length will be determined in the units of cm and thenfish will be shifted to its relative pond. In the saline lab, the weight interms of grams of each fish will be measured with the help of weight balanceafter the measurement of body length.
The data book will be used to note theaverage weight and length and fish will be transferred to the pond. Theincreasein weight and length of both carpswill be calculated by the followingformulae. Following formulae willbe used to observe the growth response.
Increase in length =Final length-Initial length.Mean weight gain (MWG)MWG = Final weight of fish (g) – Initial weight offish (g)Specific growth rate(SGR) SGR= x 100 Feed conversion ratio(FCR)FCR = STATISTICALANALYSISThe data collected will be analyzed using analysisofvariance (ANOVA). Multiple Range test will beused tocompare the meandifferences, which willmeasure significant at p< 0.