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(Synopsis for M.Phil)

TITLE: Effect of
micro mineral supplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of
Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala under semi intensive culture system

Name of Student        Muhammad SaleemSarwar

Regd. No                    2013-ag-6928


studies will be conducted to investigate the effect of micro mineral
supplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of two major
carps Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala under semi intensive
culture system mainly act on metabolism and affect the feed intake of fish.Fish
will be cultivated in pond for 56 days and the influence of supplemented diet
based on micro minerals will be noted on weekly basis and their effect on
growth and body composition will be analyzed. Feed
intake will also be observed throughout experiment. At the end of study, the
fish will be weighted for calculation of weight gain (WG), specific growth rate
(SGR) and feeding efficiency (FE). The data collected will be analyzed
using analysis ofvariance (ANOVA). Multiple Range Test will be used tocompare
the mean differences, and the level of significance will be reported at p<0.05.           UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD DEPARTEMENT OF ZOOLOGY, WILDLIFE AND FISHERIES (Synopsis for M.Phil) TITLE: Effect of micro mineral supplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth performance of Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala under semi intensive culture system.     a)                  Date of admission                               :           04-09-2016 b)                  Date of initiation                                 :          After approval c)                  Probable duration                                :           6 months d)                 PERSONNEL: e)                  Name                                                   :           Muhammad SaleemSarwar f)                   Regd. No.                                           :           2013-ag-6928 g)                  Supervisor                                           :           Dr. Khalid Abbas h)                 SUPPERVISORY COMMITTEE:         i.            Dr. Khalid Abbas                    :         (Supervisor)       ii.            Dr. Sajid Abdullah                  :          (Member)     iii.            Dr. Anjum Zia                         :           (Member)   INTRODUCTION The growth performance and nutrient digestibility of fish in intensive and semi- intensive culture system depends on various factors particularly feeding managements. Fish growth at different phases is largely overseen by the kind of nutrients, feeding frequency, feed consumption and its capacity to captivate the nutrients. One problem challenging by fish culturists is to obtain stability between speedy fish growth and optimal use of the provided diet. Among these, feeding frequency is a significant aspect for the survival and growth of fish at the initial stage (Hung et al., 2001; Dwyer et al., 2002).   Aquaculture is the fastest rising food area in recent decades. In many emergent countries, pond-based or open water broad, enhanced, extensive and semi-intensive practices using polyculture and monoculture farming skills have been broadly accepted. Relatively, the higher volume of freshwater and marine predatory finfish in advanced countries is manufactured by intensive culturing systems using high-cost feed formulations in the form of "nutritionally perfect balanced feeds". In most of evolving countries like Asia and Africa, worldwide aquaculture production can be accomplished through the progression of semi-intensive, small scale pond farming. Hence, diet and feeding approaches will play a massive role in maintaining the aquaculture growth. Therefore, there is a need for sustainable aquaculture managements should address provision of ideas based on native environments, and balance increasing productivity with social and environmental budgets (Hasan, 2001). There are several experiments performed  on feeding trial with formulated diets based on micro mineral supplementation using Indian major carp rohu, Labeorohita and Cirrihinusmrigala  which is among the most widespread and commercially cultivated fish types in Pakistan. However many experiments have been performed about feeding frequency of this class are very insufficient (Gokceket al., 2008). Therefore this experiment has been aimed to study the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Indian major carp rohu, Labeorohita and Cirrihinusmrigala fed on artificial micro mineral supplemented diet (45 % crude protein) at altered feeding frequencies. Therefore, it is essential to regulate the feeding frequency and feeding level for the desired species in aquaculture for best production. When fish are nourished with at ideal feeding frequency, growth and feed conversion ratio are anticipated to increase because controls their feed consumption  relative to their energy requirement (Kaushik and Meadale, 1994) and their feeding measures (Boujard and Leatherland, 1992; Dada et al. (2002). The concept of aquaculture in Pakistan is semi-intensive in nature and is established on the bases of polyculture of three major carps viz. rohu (Labeorohita), thaila (Catlacatla), mori (Cirrhinusmrigala) including two Chinese carps viz. grass carp (Ctenopharyngodonidella) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthysmolitix). Concept of polyculture is also common in India and proved to be quite successful and fish production is very tall than monoculture system (Chakrabarti, 1998; Azimet al., 2001; Dhawan and Kaur, 2002a and b; Hossainet al., 2003; Keshavanathet al., 2006; Sahuet al., 2007). Minerals have an important role in fish physiological processes. Iron is one of them, contents of iron required in low concentration as compared to mammals (Van Dijk et al., 2012). Intestinal mucosa is the site that absorbs the iron. The deficiency of iron reported as anemia in brook trout (Kawatsu, 2010) yellowtail (Ikeda et al., 1973a), red sea bream (Sakamoto and Yone, 1978a) and carp (Sakamoto and Yone, (1978b). Copper is also necessary minerals for the enzymatic activities of fish like cytochrome oxidase, superoxide dismutase, lysyl oxidase, dopamine hydroxylase and tyrosinase. According to Syed and Coombs (2014) there are many similarities of the copper functioning between fish and mammals. In fish maximum concentration of copper located in heart, brain and in liver.   REVIEW OF LITERATURE Khan et al. (2012) evaluated the response of (Cirrhinusmrigalaand Labeorohita) under semi intensive system for three months. Organic and inorganic supplements were provided in pond where the fishes were grown. Food supplements having 35% protein provided daily in pond at three percent of body weight. It was noted that all the fish species gained much weight as compared to control with this feed. It was also studied that different parameters like feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, protein utilization and gross energy retention efficiency increased in all the fish species as compared to non-treated fish species. Whereas gross energy retention efficiency in L. rohitaincreased more than other fish species under 35% protein diet. Aamina et al. (2017) performed an experiment to determine the growth effect of Catlacatla in metal mixture condition in semi-intensive system. Fingerlings of three months were succumbed to sub-lethal proportion of metal and transferred it to pond. Both ponds (control and treated) were treated with nitrogen containing fertilizer for hundred gram of wish weight. It was studied that control fish showed higher growth rate as compared to stressed fish. Maximum wet weight of fish species was reduced in metal mixture condition. Different condition factors (temperature, Ph, total hardness, total dissolved solids and alkalinity) were enhanced in metal mixture than control, whereas feed conversion ratio observed more for control. It was also detected that metal mixture reduced the overall growth of fishes and also caused toxic effects. Dada &Olugbemi (2013) conducted an experiment to determine the effect of different feed additive on growth, body composition and utilization of nutrients of Clariasgariepinus (African fish). Commercial feed additive (aqua booster and aqua pro) were mixed with diet at 0.5 g per kilogram and forage to fish for 50 days. Fishes feed on commercial feed additive exhibited the maximum growth rate, body composition and utilization as compared to control diet. However the maximum growth rate was observed under aqua pro (commercial additive feed) as compared to aqua booster. Protein contents, protein efficiency were observed higher for aqua pro than aqua booster. The moisture contents were not affected under both feed additive.   Adhikari et al. (2014) were conducted an experiment with indian carps (Catlacatla(catla), Labeorohita(rohu) and Cirrhinusmrigala) in 12 fish ponds. Each pond contain 0.04 hector water and stocking densities for the fish carp were 7500, 10000 and 12500 per hector. Four applications for each stocking were used. The average weight ofcatla, rohu and mrigal fingerlings were 6.5 ± 0.5, 5.0 ± 0.4 and 3.5 ± 0.4 g, respectively noted. As manure, cow dung 14000 kg, Urea 200 kg and phosphate 300 kg per hector were used. The fishes were also fed with oil cake and rice polish in 1:1 ratio. The budget indicated that retrieval of nitrogen reduced from 43 to 24% and phosphorus was also decreased from 16 to 9% but their stocking densities were enhanced. It was also determined that recovery of organic carbon reduced from 28 to 16% but its stocking density increased from 7500 to 12500 per hector. Chattopadhyay et al. (2002) studied the effect of micro mineral supplementation on growth performance of LabeoRohita and CirrhinusMirgala in semi intensive culture system.  The experiment was designed for 90 days in semi intensive culture system with Labeorohita and Cirrhinusmrigala. The fishes were grown with micro mineral supplemented diet like Co, Cr etc. and temperature of pond kept at 24 c to 31C. The results showed that applied micro mineral supplemented diet has no significant influence on the fishes grown in pond. It was also indicated that all these supplements have no significantly changed the water quality attributes like Ph, total dissolve oxygen, alkalinity, hardness of water and its biological parameters (phytoplankton and zooplankton population). The experiment also determined that temperature, growth coefficient, condition factor, weight of individual species and body composition of all the fish species not significantly affected by supplements used in experiment. Abbas et al. (2014) conducted an experiment to analyze the efficacy of micro mineral supplemented diet on fish growth when applied individually or in combined form with supplementary feed. Studies were conducted in clay ponds continued till full growth period. Results indicate that organic manure is better than inorganic supplemented diet and can handle independently nutrient requirement of fish to some extent of their growth period but inorganic diet cannot do it alone. These studies further indicate that administration of micro mineral supplementary feed is essential for maximum output though both organic and inorganic fertilizers provided supplementary diet not only fulfills the nutrient deficiencies but also helps to exploit the maximum potential of manures added into pond. Kumar et al. (2017) determined the alternate feeding strategies of optimum nutrients and reducing feed cost in aquaculture system for semi intensive condition. It was noted that production of fish (feed) provides the half of the aquaculture cost. The further cost can be impassive by reducing the concentration of expensive ingredient in feed but it was ensured that these ingredients not contained the growth and quality of culture stock. Suitable alternate feeding strategies used to reduce the aquaculture cost. The experiment also indicated that low cost feed formulation reduced the pollution load in pond and improved the economic status, income for the farmers. Baidya and Murthy et al, was conducted an Eight weeks feeding trial to assess the influence of nutritional organic selenium (OS) ondevelopment, persistence and body composition of rohu (Labeorohita). The selenium is supplemented at 0, 1, 2 and 3 g/kg diet. These test intakes were served for 8 weeks in three groups of rohu, which had primary weight of 1.2 g. After the supplementation of test diets, growth and survival of rohu was noted. Fish fed with the inclusionof OS  diets had no major changes on growth factors as well as body composition parameters. PROCEDURE In order to determine the effect of micro mineral supplementation on nutrient digestibility and growth concert of two carps L. rohita and Cirrihinusmrigala, an experiment will be conducted on Fisheries research arms, Department of Zoology, Wildlife, and Fisheries. Fingerlings will be collected from Faisalabad hatchery and acclimated to laboratory conditions for seven days in a cemented tank. After acclimation, both carps will be shifted into pond to observe the weight and levels of artificial diet on weekly basis. The effect of micro mineral supplementation on growth performance and nutrient digestibility will be determined and feed intake will also be recorded throughout the experiment. BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS The body composition of fish will be analyzed by dissection the five fishes from each aquariumliver and viscera weighed to determine hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI), respectively. Variousparameters likemoisture, crude protein, will be determined through kjeldhalprocess, lipid will be determined through Bligh and Dyer method and ash will be determined through combustion process. GROWTH PARAMETER Fish sampling will be done on weekly basis, to check the growth performance in terms of average weight and total length. The length and weight will be documented on weekly basis to calculate the mean weight and length at the end of the trial. Measurement of average length and weight A suitable measuring scale will be used to determined the length of fish. The length will be determined in the units of cm and then fish will be shifted to its relative pond. In the saline lab, the weight in terms of grams of each fish will be measured with the help of weight balance after the measurement of body length. The data book will be used to note the average weight and length and fish will be transferred to the pond. The increasein weight and length of both carpswill be calculated by the following formulae. Following formulae will be used to observe the growth response. Increase in length = Final length-Initial length. Mean weight gain (MWG) MWG = Final weight of fish (g) – Initial weight of fish (g) Specific growth rate (SGR)                                SGR =   x 100   Feed conversion ratio (FCR) FCR = STATISTICAL ANALYSIS The data collected will be analyzed using analysis ofvariance (ANOVA). Multiple Range test will beused tocompare the mean differences, which willmeasure significant at p< 0.05.