VTOL aircraft are very tedious to operate during landing, when a pilot is unable to observe sufficiently the motion of aircraft with respect to landing area. The suggested system is based on microcontroller like 8051/Arm controller connected to sensors through ADC and DAC converter which carries signals to mechanical control unit for controlling like thrust in aircraft during landing which enables safe landing of aircraft in adverse conditions and limited visibility. In this process ultrasound waves or ultrasonic transmitter are used and signal are received by ultrasonic receiver. This system enables safer landing during degraded environment such as brownout, whiteout, night operations and the like. Microcontroller system using different sensors is used for this purpose. Frequency of all the four sensors will be different so that the receiver should not receive the signal from another transmitter . Hardware model of neural network can also be applied instead of microcontroller. This system enables pilot to land safely during reduced visibility conditions.
In one of the preferred embodiment of present invention ultrasonic radar system is used for the detection of altitude. Apart from that we can used laser light technology an RF waves for measurement of altitude. In normal conditions when pilot start autopilot mode the autopilot landing system will firstly detect the altitude. After that when the output of four sensors will be same it will go to controller and the aircraft will come down until predefined time and then the aircraft will get stabled for few seconds on that altitude and then the altitude will be detected by the sensors and again output will be the same and the aircraft will come down for a predefined timing and when the output of sensors is zero(finite value of sensor from ground in stop condition) the engine will halt. Now , when the output of one or two sensors will be different at that time the aircraft will move aside or in forward direction as per the programming of microcontroller.
This system enables safer landing during degraded environment such as brownout , whiteout and night operations. This system helps pilot to land safely during reduced visibility conditionsIn a typical VTOL autopilot, there is the rotorcraft and power lift. In the rotorcraft there are four sub parts which are :HelicopterThe helicopter’s form of VTOL allows it to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally. These attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft would usually not be able to take off or land. The capability to efficiently hover for extended periods of time is due to the helicopter’s relatively long, and hence efficient rotor blades, and allows a helicopter to accomplish tasks that fixed-wing aircraft and other forms of vertical takeoff and landing aircraft could not perform at least as well until 2011.
On the other hand, the long rotor blades restrict the maximum speed to about 250 miles per hour (400 km/h) of at least conventional helicopters, as retreating blade stall causes lateral instability.AutogyroAutogyros are also known as gyroplanes or gyrocopters. The rotor is unpowered and rotates freely in the airflow as the craft travels forward, so the craft needs a conventional powerplant to provide thrust. An autogyro is not intrinsically capable of VTOL: for VTO the rotor must be spun up to speed by an auxiliary drive, and vertical landing requires precise control of rotor momentum and pitch.GyrodyneGyrodynes are also known as compound helicopters or compound gyroplanes. A gyrodyne has the powered rotor of a helicopter with a separate forward thrust system of an autogyro. Apart from take-off and landing the rotor may be unpowered and autorotate. Designs may also include stub wings for added lift.
CyclogyroA cyclogyro or cyclocopter has a rotary wing whose axis and surfaces remain sideways across the airflow, as with a conventional wing. While in the power lift there are 9 sub parts :ConvertiplaneA convertiplane takes off under rotor lift like a helicopter, then transitions to fixed-wing lift in forward flight. TiltrotorA tiltrotor or proprotor tilts its propellers or rotors vertically for VTOL and then tilts them forwards for horizontal wing-borne flight, while the main wing remains fixed in place.TiltjetSimilar to tiltrotor concept, but with turbojet or turbofan engines instead of ones with propellers.
TiltwingA tiltwing has its propellers or rotors fixed to a conventional wing and tilts the whole assembly to transition between vertical and horizontal flight.Tail-sitterA tail-sitter sits vertically on its tail for takeoff and landing, then tilts the whole aircraft forward for horizontal flight.Vectored thrustThrust vectoring is a technique used for jet and rocket engines, where the direction of the engine exhaust is varied. In VTOL, the exhaust can be varied between vertical and horizontal thrust.Lift jetsA lift jet is an auxiliary jet engine used to provide lift for VTOL operation, but may be shut down for normal wing-borne flight.Lift fansLift fan is an aircraft configuration in which lifting fans are located in large holes in an otherwise conventional fixed wing or fuselage. It is used for V/STOL operation.
The aircraft takes off using the fans to provide lift, then transitions to fixed-wing lift in forward flight. Several experimental craft have been flown, but only the F-35 Lightning II entered into production.Lift via Coand? effectAircraft in which VTOL is achieved by exploiting the Coand? effect are capable of redirecting air much like thrust vectoring, but rather than routing airflow through a duct, the airflow is simply routed along an existing surface, which is usually the body of the craft allowing less material and weight. The Avro Canada VZ-9 Avrocar, or simply the VZ-9, was a Canadian VTOL aircraft developed by Avro Aircraft Ltd. which utilizes this phenomenon by blowing air into a central area, then it is directed down over the top surface, which is parabolic and resembles a bowed flying saucer. Due to the Coand? effect, the airflow is attracted to the nearest surface and continues to move along that surface despite the change in the surface’s direction away from the airflow. The craft is designed to direct the airflow downward to provide lift.