Human growth and development theories Theories were established in learning the dynamic aspects of human growth and development. Human growth refers to the physical aspects that occur as human life exist from the start of conception to the end of life. It can be quantified and measured through an individual’s physiological attributes such as the height, weight, dental progression, and bone structure.
Development pertains to the stages and characteristics describing the complexity of cognitive skills and social skills being established by an individual as they age from their conception or fetal stage and matures Into adulthood. Theories of development were created from different school of thoughts that are products from processes of methodological thinking In providing a basis of Intellectual arguments to address the questions regarding human behaviors and actions through age, contact to other Individuals, experiences and situations, and their environment.
Cognitive theory argues that the cognitive ability, an individual’s way to think are as they physiologically matures and has chances to interact in their environment. In Babe article (1 999), Jean Pigged is mentioned as a leading theorist behind this thinking. Pigged theorized that babies are curious and thoughtful, generating their own schema about their world. Cognitive theory according to Pigged explains how people think changes with time and experiences, including an individual’s thinking that influences their individual’s actions.
Pigged presented that individuals interaction to the repeated stimulus are in a stage of equilibrium of accommodation and assimilation cycles, when a new stimulus is, the state is into disequilibrium. As the individual adds new knowledge and understand new stimulation, he or she adapts or accommodates and adjust or assimilate to once again return into a state of equilibrium.
These cycle as Pigged presented is how an individual learns and introduced it into four stages from birth to adult; the first stage is seniority (0-2 years old), second stage is pre-operational (2-6 years old), where beginning of the problem solving is, third stage is concrete operations (6-11 years old), whereby the individuals learning ability is considered to discern initial logical quantitative skills to
Interact and behave with moral discipline, the fourth and final stage Is formal operations (1 2 years old to adulthood), where learners engage In more advanced thinking, and reasoning as new experiences or stimulus is encountered (Babe, 1999). Learning theory or also known as behaviorism argues that behaviors can be learned through training, following laws and processes. According to Berger (2010), Behaviorism Identifies certain laws and processes shapes and molds all behaviors of from newborn to old age.
Ivan Pavlov Introduced the argument that learnt behavior Is eased on specific laws of behavior and processes referring to controlling, by which an Individual’s response to a particular stimulus generates learning, emphasis on repeated stimuli to which behavior is. Pavlov initially introduces the first type of conditioning called classical conditioning (respondent conditioning) where certain neutral stimulus are with meaningful stimulus that becomes a learned behavior. An example can be when an individual smells a rotten garbage and reacts to stay away Trot ten area winner ten garbage Is.
Another Detonator’s, B h Skinner, Introduced t second type of conditioning called operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning), whereby learning process is a result from desired outcome to a particular stimulus (Berger, 2010). In operant conditioning, the term punishment and reward are a great example in learning behaviors. Children learn to behave appropriately when expected rewards are and knows that bad behaviors have consequences. Social learning theory spouted from behaviorism that initially described by Albert Bandeau, which refers individuals learning behaviors from other individuals through observation and social interactions.
Furthermore, A. Bandeau presented that learned behaviors are with perceptions and interpretations of observed behaviors, which social learning may refer as modeling. It usually includes self-reflections, self- understanding and self-efficacy that when achievement are high, results to high aspirations and notable results (Berger, 2010). The Life Span Perspective The life span perspective in the science of human development tackles all aspects of growth and development without any focus to a specific argument or theories.
The approach in recognizing that development changes with time, focusing on all phases of life throughout the individual’s length of life. It includes all three human developmental domains, the bifocals that refers to the physical aspect of growth; the cognitive which pertains to the mental processing, ability to learn, think and decide, and psychosocial development which covers social skills, ability to interact with other individuals and society setting (Berger, 2010). It tackles the five characteristics geared in explaining the dynamics of human development from different phases in human life cycle.
These human development characteristics include multidimensional perspective, multicultural, multidimensional, multicultural, ultrasonically, and plasticity (Berger, 2010). The multidimensional development shows that each has phases in life that growth take place in different stages as time changes. Physiological, cognitive and psychosocial behaviors impact in the multidimensional way can be as gradual and expected that continuity occurs or rapid and unexpected transformations occurs that discontinuity is evident to one’s life.
Changes does not have to be in a straight line. According to Palmer (2010), there are many variables affecting growth and development that a straight path may not occur, TTS multicultural development includes the society (cohort, generation), the environment (rich, poor) and situational happenings (education and income) in an individual life. Every individual belongs to a group that believes or follows certain rules, cultural differences and diversity establishes the multicultural aspect of development.
Multidisciplinary development is the interests of an individual from different phases in his or her life; it also refers to the domains and disciplines that are occurring in stages of life. Plasticity is the ability to change perspectives as an individual reach different stages of growth, plasticity defines human traits confirming that it can be, malleable to changes and takes this changes in life to the development to another way of thinking.
Life span perspective integrates studies of human development on growth, learning, cognitive thinking and behavioral aspects of an individual, overlapping each characteristic seen in the three important domains of development (Learner et al. 2013) Heredity and environment influences A young 11 year Chinese boy Just completed a very complicated violin masterpiece, Ana teen called ml a violin prodigy. He started violin at SIX years 010 Decease en showed an interest while watching her mom play the violin. He practices four to six hours every day.
Is it an inherited trait that makes him good violinist or because he started at an early age. Arguments of nature and nurture having the most impact to the development of an individual from birth to adulthood has been an ongoing debate in behavioral psychology science. Genes or genetic predisposition refers to the biological traits from parents incorporated into the child. Physical features like blue eyes elongated chins, and height exemplifies genetics, inherited gene. Nurture influences an individual’s development with the interaction to the environment and experiences he or she encounters.
In Pl©he’s article, it mentions studies done that intellectual differences are affected by both nature and nurture, heredity being crucial to the behaviors in an individual. The variables such as the environment, social status and situation experiences can influence the behaviors and personality of an individual. Interaction of both genes and environment influences the development affecting behaviors, personalities and traits, thinking or intelligence, mutinous process that is through stages of an individual’s life.
Development psychology conveys avenues on the knowledge of growth and development that explains behaviors, traits and personality of an individual. Three domains, bifocals, cognitive and psychosocial development has been established to define a constant variable in explaining the theories and arguments to describe human development. Life span perspective incorporates the many factors that affect the growth and development in all stages and phases of an individual’s entire life from conception to end of life.
Knowing the five characteristics of development which includes multidimensional, multicultural, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plasticity defines the integral complexities of human growth and development, gives an understanding on how each individual physically grow, interpret learning, advance cognitive ability and observe behaviors. An individual way of learning, react to stimuli, how they change over time and why their traits and personality changes with growth and development is a result of nature and the environmental influence, a dynamic interplay between what is the nature and the feedback of nurture through environment.