Wheat (Triticumaestivum L) is the most broadly grown cereal crop in the world, covering about 237 million hectares annually, accounting for a total of 420 million tonnes (Isitor et al., 1990; Langer and Hill, 1991; Olabanji et al., 2004), and for at least one-fifth of man’s calorie intake (Ohiagu et al., 1987). Wheat is an annual grass growing to between ½ to 1 ¼ meters in height, with a long stalk that terminates in a tightly formed cluster of plump kernels enclosed by a beard ofbristly spikes (Smith, 2010).
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates Iraq’s 2015 market year (MY2015/16) wheat crop at 3.3 million metric tons (MMT). Production is down 200,000 MT, (5.7 percent) from 2014 which was a record crop. The 5-year average for Iraq wheat production is 2.87 MMT. It is the first important cereal crop of Turkey and now accounts for about 67% of the total cereal production with coverage of 11.3 million hectares (Anonymous, 2012).Wheat is the most important and widely adapted food cereal in Iran and Isfahan province. Bertholdsson, N.O.,(2005) theybelieved that wheat originated in south western Asia from where it spread to other parts of Asia, Europe, Africa and America.
The selection of appropriate sowing methods play an crucial role in the placement of seed at proper depth, which ensure better emergence and subsequent crop growth, sowing methods is determine the crops stand and ultimately economic yield.Trodson etal. (1989)showed that planting method has a significant effect on water, nitrogen and phosphorus economy, energy savings and soil compaction. (Mulay et al., 1991; Hossain and Maniruzzaman, 1992; Sharma, 1992) favored line/row plantingmethod butCollins and Fowler, (1992) they recommended that broadcast sowing because of speedy and timely sowing .A key factor in the highest wheat production is the understanding of early crop establishment. Beside other agronomic factors seed rate and sowing method are major factors which determines the crop vigor and ultimate yield (Korres., et al 2002).