The purpose behind the measures taken by many employers to secure better homes for their employees, better working conditions, restrooms, and recreation is a higher standard of production. Relation to Human Development The function of leisure described above falls to touch the fundamental purpose of all education and of all society. This Is the development of the complete Individual. The goal Is a social order In which each Individual shall be able to realize the fullest potential of which he Is capable and be recognized by others for what he Is, regardless of the circumstances In which he was born.
Functions Today The dominating function of leisure cannot continue to be merely recreation of further work and increase in consumption of goods, but must center upon appreciation, creation, and service since by such means the development of the individual may be secured. Reason People sometimes do work-oriented tasks for pleasure as well as for long-term utility. A distinction may also be drawn between free time and leisure. For example, Situations International maintains that free time is illusory and rarely free; economic and social forces appropriate free time from the individual and sell it back o them as the commodity known as “leisure”.
Certainly most people’s leisure activities are not a completely free choice, and may be constrained by social pressures, e. G. People may be coerced into spending time gardening by the need to keep up with the standard of neighboring gardens.Leisure time activities comprise the entire range of human endeavor, for what is career activity to one person may be a leisure-time activity to another. In general, leisure activities include hobbies, avocations, sports, recreation, reading, music, arts and crafts, and the entire range of creative work.
They also involve forms of non- career public and personal service. Escape Activities Escape activities are those engaged in as a way to release from the daily routine of labor; they are calculated to make a person forget. They must, therefore, be absorbing and as different as possible from the activities of a person’s career. They are, in a real sense, often re-creative, for they use muscles and nerve centers not used in the usual daily tasks. By far the great majority of men and women employ their leisure time in ways that are purely or largely escape activities.
Commercialese creation is largely given over to this type of activity and, therefore, a real need for definite attention to and planning for the other constructive forms of leisure-time activity exists. General Cultural and Appreciation Activities General cultural and appreciation activities are those engaged in to broaden the outlook; widen the horizon; keep in touch with world movement or scientific developments; enjoy music, art or literature; and maintain and deepen a person’s intellectual, moral and spiritual nature.
Service Activities Service activities, or things done for others, would include personal service for a ember of the family of a friend; public service for the city, state, nation, or world; and activities for various clubs and social groups. Many creative activities also become service activities. Creative Activities Creative activities are those in which a person actively creates. The field of such activities is wide and offers opportunity for everyone.
This category would include the production or composition of music, painting and sculpture; working in wood, metal and other materials; cooking, dressmaking and embroidery; writing and any other activity in which the person is not a spectator but actually produces something, whether it is valuable or not. BASIS FOR CHOICE In choosing among leisure-time actively, no one type snouts De engaged In exclusively. Everyone should select some of each type of activity that leads to actual development. For some, selecting an escape activity may even be wise, but it should not be the major part of a person’s choice.
Choice of Escape Activities To a person burdened with care and anxiety, who works long, hard hours, escape activities may restore health and ease the mind. When such activities are chosen, they should be as different as possible form activities in the daily Job. Therefore, a arson who works indoors should choose a leisure that requires physical effort and a person who works outdoors might choose an indoor, relatively quiet leisure-time activity. Choice of Service Activities Contributing to the well-being and development of others is the purpose of service activities.
Common citizenship duties may be viewed as a form of service activities. Service opportunities are available in business clubs, women’s clubs, parent-teacher associations, church organizations, and welfare drives, to mention only a few. The service occupations of teaching ministry, medicine, social work and away provide opportunities for all three forms of leisure activities – culture and appreciation, creation and service. Definition of Recreation There is some consensus on the definition of recreation.
Recreation is an activity that people engage in during their free time, that people enjoy, and that people recognize as having socially redeeming values. Unlike leisure, recreation has a connotation of being morally acceptable not Just to the individual but also to society as a whole, and thus we program for those activities within that context. While recreation activities an take many forms, they must contribute to society in a way that society deems acceptable. This means that activities deemed socially acceptable for recreation can change over time.
Recreational activities Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped naturally by individual interests but also by the surrounding social construction. Recreational activities can be communal or solitary, active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, and useful for society or detrimental. A list of typical activities could be almost endless including most human activities, a few examples being reading, playing or listening to music, watching movies or TV, gardening, hunting, hobbies, sports, studies, and travel.
Not all recreational activities can be considered wise, healthy, or socially acceptable or useful?examples are gambling, drinking, or delinquent activities. Recreational drugs are being used to enhance the recreational experience, a wide-ranging and controversial subject as some rugs are accept declared illegal. Tea or tolerate EAI Dye collect Walton Limits, toners not Ana Recreational activities are activities that are aimed at providing a refreshing break from normal routine. These activities are known to stimulate and rejuvenate the body and mind.
Recreational activities include sports of all kinds such as skiing, swimming, fishing, hockey and football among many others. Values we get from recreation “Based on my Research” When we are expending time doing nothing our nature is to think activity to do, because of that some games are invented. Two types of Recreation Indoor Recreational Option Reading Writing Indoor games, etc. Outdoor Recreational Option Hiking Camping Swimming Surfing SCOPE OF RECREATION “Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic freshmen of one’s body or mind.
While leisure is more likely a form of entertainment or rest, recreation is active for the participant but in a refreshing and diverting manner. As people in the world’s wealthier regions lead increasingly sedentary life styles, the need for recreation has increased. ” CHESS Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered game board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid. It is one of the world’s most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide at home, in parks, clubs, online, by correspondence, and in tournaments.
Each player begins the game with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, and eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently. Pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent’s pieces, with the objective to ‘checkmate’ the opponent’s king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. In addition to checkmate, the game can be won by the voluntary resignation of the opponent, which typically occurs when too much material is lost, or if checkmate appears unavoidable. A game may also result in a draw in several ways, where neither player wins.
The course of the game is divided into three phases: opening, middle game, and endgame. The first official World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Stein, claimed his title in 1886; the current World Champion is Norwegian chess Grandmaster Magnums Carlson. In addition to e or complains, tender are ten women’s world complains, ten Junior World Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Correspondence Chess World Championship, the World Computer Chess Championship, and Blitz and Rapid World Championships. The Chess Olympian is a popular competition among teams from different nations.
Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Chess is recognized of the International Olympic Committee and international chess competition is sanctioned by the World Chess Federation (FIDE), which adopted the now- standard Staunton chess set in 1924 for use in all official games. There are also many chess, with different rules, different pieces, and different boards. Since the second half of the 20th century, computers have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest home computers play chess at a Geiger level than the best human players.
In the past two decades computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame. The computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match, when it defeated Garry Sparrow in 1997. Chess Game Rules Basic rules Chess is a two-player game, where one player is assigned white pieces and the other black. Each player has 16 pieces to start the game: one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights and eight pawns. Aim of the game The object of the game is to capture the other player’s king.
This capture is never actually completed, but once a king is under attack and unable to avoid capture, it is said to be checkmated and the game is over. Start of the game The game is started in the position shown below on a chess board consisting of 64 squares in an ex. grid. The White player moves first. Then each player takes a single turn. In fact, a player must move in turn. In other words a move cannot be skipped. Playing the game A move consists of placing one piece on a different square, following the rules of movement for that piece.
A player can take an opponent’s piece by moving one of is or her own pieces to the square that contains an opponent’s piece. The opponent’s piece is removed from the board and is out of play for the rest of the game. Check If a King is threatened with capture, but has a means to escape, then it is said to be in check. A King cannot move into check, and if in check must move out of check immediately. There are three ways you may move out of check: Capture the checking piece Block ten line AT attack Dye placing one AT your own pieces Detente ten checking place and the King. Of course, a Knight cannot be blocked. ) Move the King away from check. Checkmate The primary objective in chess is to checkmate your opponent’s King. When a King cannot avoid capture then it is checkmated and the game is immediately over. Stalemate The game is drawn when the player to move has no legal move and his king is not in check. The game is said to end in ‘stalemate’. This immediately ends the game. Time control A regular chess clock is used to limit the length of a game. These clocks count the time that each player separately takes for making his own moves.
The rules are very simple, if you run out of time, you lose the game, and thus must budget your time. Special moves Castling If the necessary conditions are met, a king and rook can move simultaneously in a castling move. The conditions are as follows: The king that makes the castling move has not yet moved in the game. The rook that makes the castling move has not yet moved in the game. The king is not in check The king does not move over a square that could be attacked by an enemy piece; I. E. , when castling, there may be no enemy piece that can move (diagonally, in the case of pawns) to a square that will be passed over by the king.
In short, you cannot castle through check. The king does not move to a square that could be attacked by an enemy piece; I. E. , you may not end the castling with the king in check. All squares between the rook and king before the castling move must be empty. When castling, the king moves two squares toward the rook, and the rook moves over the king to the next square; I. E. , white’s king on el and rook on al move to: king CLC, rook del (long castling); white’s king on el and rook on Hal move to: king gal, rook FL (short castling). The move is similar for black.
En Peasant A pawn, attacking a square crossed by an opponent’s pawn which has [Just] been advanced two squares in one move from its original square, may capture this opponent’s pawn as though the latter had been moved only one square. This capture may only be made in [immediate] reply to such an advance, and is called an “en peasant” capture. Pawn promotion On reaching the last rank, a pawn must immediately be exchanged, as part of the same move, for [either] a queen, a rook, a bishop, or a knight, of the same color as the pawn, at the player’s choice and without taking into account the other pieces still remaining on permanent! En confessors. I En erect AT ten promoted place Is MIM elate Ana End of the game Winning The game is won by the player who has checkmated his opponent’s king. Hose opponent declares he resigns. Draw The game is drawn when the king of the player who has the move is not in check, and this player cannot make any legal move. The player’s king is then said to be “stalemated”. This immediately ends the game. The game is drawn upon agreement between the two players.
The game is drawn when one of the following endings arises: king against king; king against king with only bishop or knight; king and bishop against king and bishop, with both bishops on diagonals of the same color. The player to move can claim a draw if the same position with the same player to move is repeated three times in the game here are have been 50 consecutive moves of white and of black without any piece taken any pawn move Losing The game is lost by a player who has not completed the prescribed number of moves in the allotted time, unless his opponent has only the king remaining, in which case the game is drawn.
DARTS Darts is a form of throwing game in which small missiles are thrown at a circular target (dartboard) fixed to a wall. Though various boards and rules have been used in the past, the term “darts” usually now refers to a standardized game involving a specific board design and set of rules. As well as being a professional competitive port, darts is a traditional pub game, commonly played in the United Kingdom, across the Commonwealth, the Netherlands, Belgium, Republic of Ireland, the Scandinavian countries, the United States, and elsewhere. History The dartboard may have its origins in the cross-section of a tree.
An old name for a dartboard is “butt”; the word comes from the French word but, meaning “target”. In particular, the Yorkshire and Manchester Log End boards differ from the standard Dora In Tanat teeny nave no treadle, only doodle Ana Dulls eye, ten Manchester Dora being of a smaller diameter, with a playing area of only 25 CM across with double and lull areas measuring Just mm. The London Fives board is another variation. This has only 12 equal segments numbered 20, 5, 15, 10, 20, 5, 15, 10, 20, 5, 15, 10 with the doubles and triples being a quarter of an inch wide.
There is a speculation that the game originated among soldiers throwing short arrows at the bottom of the cask or at the bottom of trunks of trees. As the wood dried, cracks would develop, creating “sections”. Soon, regional standards emerged and many woodworkers supplemented bar tabs by fabricating dart boards for the local pubs. The standard numbering plan with a 20 on top was created in 1896 y Lancashire carpenter Brian Gambling. However, a great many other configurations have been used throughout the years and in different geographical locations. Gamin’s layout was devised to penalize inaccuracy.
Although this applies to most of the board, the left-hand side (near the 14 section) is preferred by beginners, for its concentration of larger numbers. Mathematically, removing the rotational symmetry by placing the “20” at the top, there are 19! , or 121 possible dartboards. Many different layouts would penalize a player more than the current setup; however, the current setup actually does the Job rather efficiently. There have been several mathematical papers published that consider the “optimal” dartboard. Scoring A standard dart board has 20 sections with different point values for each, ranging from one point to 20 points.
If a player hits any part of a column not colored red or green, the player is awarded the exact point value marked on that section of the board. If a player hits the small bands on the outside part of a column, they are awarded double the point value marked on that section. If a player hits the small bands on the inside part of a column, they are awarded triple the point value marked on that section. The outer ring in the center of the board, known as the “bull,” is worth 25 points, as the circle in the direct center of the board, known as the “bulls eye,” is worth 50 points.
Penalties In darts, any form of heckling or taunting is prohibited while a player is in the process of throwing. The main penalty that arises in games are foot fouls, where a player fails to remain behind the throwing line during his throw. Any such fault will result in a loss of that shot. The Game of the Generals, also called EGG as it is most fondly called, or simply The Generals, is an educational warfare invented in the Philippines by Saffron’s H. Paso, Jar. In 1970. It can be played within twenty to thirty minutes. It is designed for two players, each controlling an army, and a neutral arbiter or an adjutant.
It needs the use of logic. The game simulates armies at war trying to outflank and outnumber each other. As in actual warfare, the game allows only one side’s plan to succeed. Certain strategies and tactics, however, allow both sides the chance of securing a better idea of the other’s plan as the game progresses. Players can also speak with others during matches, hoping to make a false impression on where the flag is. This game was invented by Saffron’s H. Paso, Jar. With the inspiration of Ronnie Paso (his son). The Pagodas first tried the Game of the Generals on a chessboard.
Even then, the pieces had no particular arrangement. There were no spies in the experimental game; but after Ronnie Paso remembered the James Bond movies and Meta Hart, he added the spies. Making the pieces hidden was the idea of the Pagodas after remembering card games. The Game of the Generals’ public introduction was on February 28, 1973. After the game was made, it angered many chess players thinking that Paso was trying to remove chess out of fame. The Pieces The player’s set of pieces or soldiers with the corresponding ranks and functions consist of the following 21 pieces.
A higher ranking piece will eliminate any lower ranking piece, with the exception of the spy, which eliminates all pieces except the private. The pieces are bent at an angle in order to hide the piece’s rank or insignia from the opponent. In plastic sets, the colors commonly used in the pieces are black and white. There are also sets composed of wooden boards and steel pieces. Those pieces have insignias that are either colored red or blue. In teal sets, the color of the board is commonly brown and the pieces are aluminum colored. The pieces are still bent.
Apart from the flag (the Philippine flag) and the spy (a pair of prying eyes), the insignias used in the game are those used in the Philippine Army. Pieces No. Of Pieces Function Five-star General Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Four-star General Lieutenant General Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Major General Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Brigadier General Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Colonel Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Let.
Colonel Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Major Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. Captain Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. 1st Lieutenant Eliminates any lower ranking officer, the private, and the flag. 2nd Lieutenant Eliminates the sergeant, the private, and the flag. Sergeant Eliminates the private, and the flag. Private 6 Eliminates the spy, and the flag. Spy 2 Eliminates all officers from the rank of Sergeant up to 5-Star General & the flag. Flag Eliminates the opposing flag as long as it takes the aggressive action against the enemy flag.