YeastThe Rise of the Magical Ingredient Over 5,000 years ago the ancientEgyptians knew something about yeast.

Found on Hieroglyphics were grindingstones and baking chambers, showing they had ancient bakeries and breweries thatwere using yeast and the fermentation process producing alcoholic beverages and leavened breads. The fermentation process was not understoodso it was viewed more as a mysterious and magical event. Although not fully known how it fermentation was found, itis thought that a mixture of flour and water left longer than normal, and the naturaloccurring yeast in the environment had contaminated the flour meal causing the fermentationbefore baking. (History of Yeast, n.d.)Who knew single-celled fungi called Yeast would be souseful.

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Yeast are also related to edible mushrooms, common baker’s yeast, moldsthat produce antibiotics for both medical and veterinary use as well asripening Blue Cheese. (what is yeast, n.d.) http://www.dakotayeast.com  The most common food-grade yeasts arefermentative meaning they turn sugar into carbon dioxide. These are mainly usedin bread, beer, and wine making. Food-grade yeasts naturally contain vitamins,minerals, and even protein.

They will also add a distinct flavour when used incooking and as a seasoning. (Wood, 2013)There are over 600 different species ofyeast are found in nature. They are part of the normal microorganisms of soil,vegetation, marine and other water based environments. In leaven bread we use BakersYeast. Baker’s yeast is produced from a yeast called Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thegenus is Saccharomyces, saccharo which means sugar and myces which meansfungus. The species name, cerevisiae, derives the name from Ceres, the Romangoddess of agriculture. (Devashree, n.

d.) The baker’s yeast production can be divided into four basicsteps which takes 5 days to complete. These steps are, molasses and other rawmaterial preparation, here they take a pure culture or frozen vial of the appropriatestrain of yeast, under strict sterile conditions and seed is grown. culture orseed yeast preparation, is where following growth, it is transferred to alarger fermenter where seed growth is resumed under sterile conditions and withsome aeration. The grown cells are then moved to a series of larger seed andsemi-seed fermenters, where during this time molasses, phosphoric acid, ammoniaand minerals are added at a controlled rate designed to add just enoughnutrients to the yeast to maximize growth and prevent the alcohol production. (Devashree, n.d.

)      Fermentation and harvesting are an in-depth process. Thecontents are pumped through a series of separators that aid in separating theyeast from the used molasses. The yeast cream is then washed with cold waterwhere its pumped into a storage container and held at 34? until it is putin to commercial fermentation tanks which is the final process this is referredto as the final or trade fermentation. (History of Yeast, n.d.

)Fresh orCompressed yeast is perfect for a commercial setting or for those who bakeregularly. This type of yeast has a 3-day life in a refrigerator after opening.ActiveDry Yeast is the more convenient of the types of yeast. It comes granulated andin little 1/4-ounce packets (approximately 2-1/4 teaspoons) or you can buy itloose in a jar. Once exposed to the air, it should be stored in therefrigerator. (Yeast Shelf life, n.d.

) What makes Yeast magical isthe way it converts sugars into carbon dioxide and alcohol through a processcalled Fermentation. This action makes make yeast an extremely useful tool infood production. Carbon dioxide gives alcoholic beveragestheir characteristic bubbles like in beer and champagne, it’s equallyresponsible for the risein bread. When theyeast begins to metabolize the sugars in bread dough, the CO2 gas becomes trappedin the gluten strands thus creating bubbles, and creating a leaveningaction. Alcohol is the other byproduct of yeast fermentation, this is also produced during breadmaking but is eventually evaporated by the baking process.

(MONCEL, 2017)Yeast is versatile, it can be used more thanjust for all type of breads. Yeast can be used to make Beer, Chocolate, yesjust a little but it is there, Production of wine, Probiotics, many drinkscontain yeast as well as vegetarians use it as an added low protein andvitamins supplement.  (Rowling, 2017)1 Yeast packet contains: 21 calories per 7 gramsor ¼ oz. envelope. Yeast does not largely contribute to the caloric content ofbread as an average bread recipe calls for one envelope or 2 ¼ teaspoons of yeast.4 milligrams of sodium, which is a fraction of the 1000 to1500 milligrams daily limit recommended by the Canada Food Guide.

Potassium, one envelope or 2 ¼ teaspoon contains 140milligrams of potassium. For your overall daily consumption of potassium thisreally is a small contribution.Carbohydrates, one envelope or 2 ¼ teaspoon contains atotal of 2.67 grams of carbohydrates, where 1.5 grams comes from dietary fiber.

   Protein, one envelope or 2 ¼ teaspoon contains 2.68 grams. TheCanada Food Guide recommends Adults over 19years of age need 0.

8 grams (g) of protein per kilogram (kg) of body weight so thisis not a significant source of protein.Fat, one envelope contains .32 grams of fat. The saturatedfat content is .042 grams. The bulk of the fat content is from monounsaturatedfat at .

179 grams. Polyunsaturated fat is a trace amount at .001 grams. Iron, one envelope or 2 ¼ teaspoon has 6 percent of theRecommended Daily Value of iron. (Woods, Active dry yeast Nutritional information, 2017)The worst thing is to have expired or dead yeast. Storageis important as it is a living organism. All yeast packaging comes with anexpiry date that expires 2 years from date of packaging. Store your unopened packagesand jars in a cupboard that is cool and dry.

They can also be stored in therefrigerator or freezer. When exposed to air, moisture and/or heat yeast isvery perishable. Once opened the yeast must be refrigerated or frozen inan airtight container. It is recommended that you use Dry Yeast within 4 monthsafter opening if refrigerated, or in 6 months after opening if kept frozen. Cake Yeast is extremely perishable and does require aconstant refrigeration below 45°F to keep it fresh and active.

 Remainingcake yeast should be wrapped tightly and stored in an airtight container in therefrigerator. It is recommended to not freeze cake yeast. (Yeast Shelf Life Storage Yeast Cakes, n.d.) Bread Recipe- Handed down from my Godmother1 Pkg Yeast½ Cup warm water1 tsp Sugar 3 Cups of warm milk2 tsp salt½ cup sugar4 Tbsp. oil2 eggs well beaten8 Cups of flourMix in bowl Yeast, sugar and warm water. Rest for 10minutes.

Warm milk- while waiting mix sugar, oil, salt. Add beateneggs, milk and yeast blend. Add flour gradually, 3 cups at a time. Knead for 3minutes or until incorporated. Let rise 3 hours or until double in size.Punch down and either place in to bread pans or shape intobuns etc. and let rise again for approximately 1 hour.Bake at 375 F for 20 min Yeast – $0.56Water – FreeSugar – $0.44Oil      – $0.34Eggs – $0.48Milk    – $1.06Flour  – $1.70The cost just for ingredients for this recipe is $4.58